Courtney McGowan


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25m attacks in hockey

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Courtney McGowan

  1. 1. ANALYSIS OF ATTACKS ON THE 25 YARD SECTOR IN FIELD HOCKEY Courtney McGowan email: INTRODUCTION RESULTS CONCLUSION Field hockey has made only limited use of performance There was a total of 518 attacks on the 25 yard sector by the T3G From the analyses conducted, clear strategies on how to 60% analysis in the past. The majority of research has been teams and 603 attacks by the B3G. The majority of these attacks successfully attack the 25 y sector were developed. An confined to analysis of the types of shots on-goal used and occurred down the left-hand side for both groups ( T3G - 40.15%; important finding from this study was that the 25 y attacks 50% where those shots were taken in the 25 yard sector(1, 2, 3, 4). % O F E V E NTUAL O UTCO M E B3G - 48.09%; Figure 1). Passing was the most common method by the T3G were evenly distributed across the field The majority of attacks on the 25 y sector have been reported used by both groups to enter the 25 y sector ( T3G - 49.42%; compared to the B3G which tended to attack mostly down to occur from the right-hand side of the field (4), however 40% B3G- 58.0%; Figure 1). the left-hand side of the field. This is in contrast to previous more goals were reported to be scored from the left-hand side TOP 3 TEAMS research which reported attacks mainly occurred down the of the attacking circle (1, 2). The patterns of play which lead 30% 70 BOTTOM 3 TEAMS right side (4). The significance of this finding is that if the to goal scoring opportunities have not undergone in-depth opposition team’s attack is evenly distributed then the coach investigation. Therefore, the main focus of this investigation 60 20% needs to organise their team to defend across the field was to determine how the pattern of play immediately prior to % OF A TTA C K S 50 whereas if a team tends to attack one section more often then and following entry into the attacking 25 y sector affects the 10% they can focus their team’s defence primarily on this section. outcome of an attack. The findings from this investigation will 40 CENTER RIGHT provide a framework for coaches to develop strategies to more 0% Another important finding was the markedly higher rate of 30 LEFT effectively attack the 25 y sector. GOAL SHORT SHOT ON FREE HIT CORNER GOAL conversion of attacks into positive outcomes achieved by the 20 T3G compared to the B3G. For coaches this means that TYPE OF POSITIVE OUTCOME The specific objectives were: although their team may attack more, it is what they do with 10 1) To determine what key positional and ball carrying tactics the ball that is most critical if they want to increase their should be implemented when attacking the 25 yard sector to Figure 2: Percentage of 25 y attacks resulting in 0 game winning percentage. improve the probability of a positive outcome. different positive outcomes L L E E SS SS IA IA L L BB BB PA PA 2) To define the patterns of play which lead to goal scoring R R The results from this study demonstrate that field hockey AE AE RI RI D D opportunities. BOTTOM 3 HOW ENTERED TOP 3 Based on the findings of this investigation an example of coaches should look to develop drills and strategies for an ideal attacking strategy is presented in Figure 3.The attacking the 25 y sector that focus on quick passing entries Figure 1: Number of attacks on the 25 y sector by section of the attack originates from a pass down the left-hand side with utilising a minimum number of passes and smooth ball field from which the attack was initiated and method of entry only 1 pass being made prior to the shot being taken. movement. They should also promote short, sharp attacks, METHODS used to attack the 25 y sector. trying to spend as little time as possible in the 25 y sector. Finally, they should encourage their team to ensure they Performance analysis was conducted on 15 elite men’s field There was a significant association between the number of attack down the left side as frequently as they attack down hockey games from the 2008 Men’s Champions Trophy. The passes and the time spent within the 25 y sector and the outcome the right hand side or centre. games were coded using a hand notational analysis data of 25 y attacks for both groups. collection system. The subjects were split into 2 groups T3G: Passes (χ2 (60) = 168.551, p = .000 < 0.001). The above findings were shown to lead to improvements in according to their overall placings in the tournament ( top 3 Time (χ2 (907) = 1274.927, p = .000 < 0.001). the likelihood of attaining positive outcomes in attacks on the ranked teams = Australia, Spain, Argentina [T3G]; bottom 25 y sector in this study. Therefore the application of these ranked teams = Netherlands, Germany, Korea [B3G]). B3G: Passes (χ2 (63) = 207.414, p = .000 < 0.001). findings by coaches in training sessions should lead to an Time (χ2 (1079) = 1672.245, p = .000 < 0.001). increase in the proportion of positive outcomes achieved The variables measured were: from attacks on the 25 y sector. 1) The number of attacks on the 25 y sector. For the T3G when goals were scored, the time spent in the 25 y 2) The result obtained from the attack. sector was ≤ 7 seconds, and ≤ 9 seconds for missed shots-on- 3) The part of the field from which the ball entered the 25 y goal. For the B3G, goals were scored in ≤ 5 seconds, and sector. missed shots-on-goal in ≤ 13 seconds. REFERENCES 4) The stroke used to shoot if a goal shot was taken. 5) Method used by the attacking team to enter the 25 y sector. 6) No. of passes made by the attacking team in the 25 y sector. Most commonly both groups made only 1 pass within the 25 y 1. Andrews, K. Hockey Field. 72(8):199-201, 1985. 7) Total time spent by the attacking team in the 25 y sector. sector to achieve a successful shot on goal (T3G – 54% of 2. Hughes M, & Billingham N. National Conference of attacks; B3G - 57% of attacks) . Psychology Patiala, India.1986. Positive outcomes of attacks on the 25 y sector were goal, 3. Sunderland, C, Bussell,C, Atkinson, Alltree, R & Kates, M. short corner, shot on goal and free hit. Chi -square was used to For the T3G 60% of their attacks on the 25 y sector resulted in a International Journal of Performance Analysis in assess the association between the number of passes and time positive outcome, and for the B3G 48% of their attacks resulted Sport.6(1):13-28, 2006. spent in the 25 y sector, and the outcome of attacks. in a positive outcome (Figure 2). Figure 3: Example of an ideal attack on the 25 y sector 4. Wilson, G.E. Hockey Field, 74(5):161-163, 1987a.