Acs Survival Skills Uburban


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Disaster Survival Skills for the Urban Environment. Since the 9/11/01 attacks our fire department has been conducting this training for muncipal employees and Citizens Corps groups such as Auxiliary Communiucations Service, CERT, Neighborhood Watch and Medical Reserve Corps. The .ppt is a classroom overview used prior to live training breakout sessions which are conducted at the fire academy.


Why teach “survival” in the city?
Catastrophes vs. disasters
This is about your SURVIVAL, not volunteering
Priorities for human survival
Break-out sessions:
Shelter construction
Fire making
Equipment and supplies
Social implications of disasters
Personal security concerns

Disaster V. Catastrophe
Disasters are short term
“Make do for 3-4 days until help arrives…”
Catastrophic events are long term
Katrina-scale hurricane, tsunami, earthquake
Major terror attack, nuclear detonation, dirty bomb
No help is coming soon, “you are on your own”

Complete loss of civil infrastructure
Minimal or no police, fire or EMS response
No electricity, municipal water, communications
Transport of fuel / food is severely impaired
Public safety agencies will be overwhelmed
Recovery is long term (over 30 days)

What the military survival schools teach:
Seven Priorities For Survival
"Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst”
Positive mental attitude
First Aid / Sanitation

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  • While the risk of truly catastrophic events is very limited, they cannot be ignored. The long term consequences of a Katrina-level storm, terrorist or enemy attack are potentially severe. When the unexpected happens, having a positive attitude, being prepared and knowing some basic survival skills are key elements to keeping your family safe and secure. We can’t teach you everything you need to know in a few hours. We will introduce the fundamentals, point you to sources of further information, and encourage you to practice these skills on your own, so that you can assess each situation accordingly to create a stable and safe environment for your family.
  • Whether you are in the wilderness or the city, survival is summarized by the “rule of threes” Being stupid for as little as three seconds can be fatal if you are unaware of dangers to which you are exposed. Being without safe air to breathe can kill you within three minutes. Being without shelter from exposure to a hostile environment can kill you in about 3 hours. Being without water to replace fluid loss through urine, sweat and respiration impairs your body’s ability to perform at a survivor’s level after about 3 days. While a healthy body can sustain itself without food for about 3 weeks, fire, food and adequate hydration maintain body warmth, health and stamina and provide a valuable psychological boost which helps to keep you focused on your survival priorities.
  • Loss of AC power for 3-4 days is an inconvenience. But if power and municipal water were out for a month and the Giant supermarket and Walmart were “gone” it would be entirely another matter. So think beyond the short term. Survival is said to be 5% physical stress and 95% mental. Being aware and prepared enables you to reduce the mental stress to a manageable level. Be resourceful. Use neighborhood resources to take charge of your own recovery. Get to know your neighbors now. Find those with whom you share common values. Build cooperation and trust. Work together to build a safe and secure community for your families. When disaster strikes there is safety in numbers. Band together to protect and help each other. It’s much easier than being cold, hungry, alone and afraid in the dark.
  • Military survival schools have experts in evaluating which techniques have proven to work in extreme circumstances. So we won’t re-invent the wheel. What follows comes straight from world class experts. A short program and exercise cannot teach you all there is to know about surviving a disaster in an urban environment or anywhere else. Throughout the presentation we will provide links to obtain further information. We also urge you to assemble a family disaster supplies kit, actually use these items, to become familiar and practice with them, so that you will develop skill and confidence. The break out sessions will demonstrate some fundamental techniques which you can teach family members.
  • Every survival situation is unique. Take a few moments in time to size up and assess your situation. By identifying hazards, and becoming aware of available resources in your environment, you develop a effective action plan and act on it. Take charge, set a good example by exercising positive leadership, maintain discipline and cultivate teamwork. Don’t let yourself become a victim. Taking time to think avoids the three fatal seconds of stupidity.
  • You are responsible to care for your family. A family disaster supplies kit should contain items to either shelter in place for two weeks or to evacuate and relocate with family or friends outside the affected area until it is safe to go home again. Everyone in the family should know the family out of area contact, be familiar with where disaster equipment and supplies are located and how to use them. Involve family members in disaster planning, shopping for disaster supplies and inspecting kit contents, to replace partially used or expired items.
  • When confronted with a survival situation keep your mind and body active. A positive attitude is your most valuable survival resource. Give yourself tasks to perform. Keep focused on what you need to accomplish. No matter how bad a situation may seem, you are not alone. Work together with your neighbors and help each other. You are better off than those who were caught clueless, unprepared and unaware. Because you are still alive. Take action and choose not to become a victim.
  • In U.S. Army experience more personnel deployed in combat zones require evacuation to rear areas for medical treatment due to infection of minor wounds and sickness caused by poor sanitation, than as a result of enemy action. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that a million people become sick each year from consuming contaminated food or water. Boil all water, cook foods thoroughly, keep food preparation surfaces clean, bury all wastes and above all wash your hands often! Frequent hand washing with soap and water, or pre-packaged wipes and sanitizers is your best protection. Carry first aid and sanitation supplies which enable you to wash frequently, promptly treat minor wounds and manage infection.
  • Being aware of and alert for hazards is vital in your continuing size-up. Evaluate your options and act responsibly To avoid injuries don’t take unnecessary chances. Work the safest way. Work at a deliberate steady pace, take frequent breaks, avoid exhaustion Stay hydrated to reduce fatigue and remain aware. Always work with a buddy. Safe decisions are based on situational awareness and open communication.
  • Here are some good examples of the typical hazards to which you may be exposed in a disaster. There are simple steps you can take to minimize exposures, and to avoid people bringing contaminants into your shelter. Construct an entry way for scraping and washing boots, or shoes or coveralls, and for their removal and storage. Next improvise a field shower and hand washing area for decontamination and changing into clean clothes prior to entering living areas. Having a supply of single-use, disposable N95 respirators may avoid long-term health effects of exposure to smoke or dusts, which affected WTC responders and survivors.
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 70 percent of winter storm deaths occur in automobiles, from carbon monoxide poisoning or hypothermia. Most hypothermia deaths occur when air temperatures are between 30 and 50 degrees F. A metal vehicle provide protection from wind, but is not an ideal shelter because it does loses heat readily in winter and quickly over-heats in direct summer sun. An emergency shelter must be large enough to protect you, but small enough to contain your body heat and hold as much warmth as possible, while venting dangerous carbon monoxide to the outside. A bird nest is sturdy, well insulated, protected from wind, uses the overhead tree canopy as water proofing and meets the basic requirements of a shelter.
  • The for and probably most important decision you must make is whether to evacuate or stay where you are. The primary concern is safety. If it is safer where you are than if out on the road, stay put, unless authorities have called for a mandatory evacuation. If evacuation is not mandatory, do a quick survey of your home. Has your home been flooded or damaged by fire, falling or blowing debris? Are there any uncontrolled water or gas leaks, or arcing energized wires?
  • If you must evacuate, the process is less stressful if you have planned ahead of time where you will go, who you will take and how you will get there. Temporary relocation with friends or relatives outside the affected area is usually the best choice. Avoid having top use public shelters unless you really have no other alternative. They are called “shelters of last resort” for a reason. If your area has pre-established evacuation routes, use them. Pack your disaster supplies in containers which are readily transportable. Keep your vehicle gas tank at least ¾ full if aware of an approaching storm.
  • If you may be contaminated, remove EVERYTHING touching your skin, including jewelry. Cut off clothing normally removed over the head, to avoid ingesting any agent. Wash your hands before using them to shower. Flush the entire body with cool water. Do not use hot water, as it opens the pores and may increase exposure to the agent. Blot dry with absorbent cloth and put on clean clothes. Then report to responders for thorough decontamination, medical assessment and treatment. Next slide>
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control, carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings occur most often during fall and winter, when people are more likely to use gas furnaces, heaters and generators in their homes. The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are nausea, headache and dizziness, which are easily mistaken for other conditions such as a viral illness. T o Prevent Carbon Monoxide Exposure have all gas-, oil-, or coal-burning appliances serviced annually by a qualified technician. Install a battery-operated CO detector in your home and replace the battery each spring and fall. If your CO detector sounds, evacuate immediately and telephone 911. Seek prompt medical attention if you suspect CO poisoning and are feeling dizzy, light-headed, or nauseated. Do not use a generator, charcoal grill, camp stove, or other gasoline- or charcoal-burning device inside your home, basement, or garage or near a window. Do not burn anything in a stove or fireplace that is not vented. Do not heat your house with a gas oven.
  • Generators use internal combustion engines which produce carbon monoxide! Ventilation of exhaust and fuel vapors is critical. NEVER run a generator indoors, or in attached garages, even if you leave the door open. The same prohibition n applies to getting up a generator near or HVAC intakes or open windows. Don’t connect or plug a portable generator directly into the household electric service. Plug or connect only individual devices into the generator. Use only UL-rated cords and equipment and ensure adequate grounding of the generator and all equipment. Don’t set up generators or feed lines on wet ground. Remember that fuel vapors are heavier than air, travel along the ground and can be ignited by any arc, spark, or open flame. Store fuel outdoors in a ventilated shed and only use Fire Marshall approved containers.
  • Metal vehicles make less than ideal shelters, but do provide weather resistant storage for supplies. Abandoned cars may contain useful materials such as their, fuel, oil, radio, battery, upholstery, tire changing tools, spare tire, etc. Search and rescue teams generally recommend that you stay nearby your vehicle if its location is safe, because you are more likely to be found near it. So construct an improvised shelter nearby. If you must abandon a crash site and attempt to walk out, leave a note telling rescuers of your intentions and direction of travel, then stick to that route.
  • Every survival kit should include a signal mirror. This is the effective daytime signal. Mirror flashes are visible from aircraft up to ten miles or more. An inexpensive military VS-17 panel is multi-purpose., serving as a rain wrap or improvised stretcher, as well as being highly visible up to a mile away. Fire provides signal capability as well as light and warmth. Adding green vegetation to a fire produces white smoke, adding petroleum or rubber produces black smoke. Every survival kit should include a flashlight, for safety, as a dark-chasing morale maintainer, as well as for signaling A whistle is an inexpensive signal which every family member should carry. A whistle blast carries farther than you can yell and uses little energy. A US Coast Guard approved pea-less, waterproof whistle designed for marine use, such as Fox 40, ACR or Skyblazer are recommended.
  • Laminated glass military signal mirrors are the best and most effective. The larger 5”x7” mirrors made for lifeboat kits are more effective than the 3”x4” pocket models. There are also plastic signal mirrors which float and are very light weight. However plastic mirrors scratch easily and should be stored in a sleeve when not in use. Improvised signals using CD’s, salvaged vehicle and the like are better than nothing, but are less effective. Practice using a signal mirror and learn how to aim it. It should be common sense, but I’ll tell you anyway, please DO NOT practice on aircraft.
  • Fire provides us with warmth and light. It enables us to purify water, cook our food, make tools, keep animals away, dry us when we are wet, comfort our souls and make us feel safe when we are alone in the dark. Fire is your friend, just don’t get stupid around fire.
  • Include matches in your survival kit, but not regular stick or book matches. “Strike-anywhere” wooden stick matches can be waterproofed by holding tweezers and dipping completely in melted paraffin, laying them out individually on aluminum foil to dry, storing them in a waterproof container. Or you can buy “lifeboat matches” which are made especially for this purpose. If the flint striker is stored inside the match container, match heads must be stored so that they can’t rub against the striker, causing an explosion. Military survival kits contain the magnesium fire starting tool shown above which is made by Doan Machinery and Equipment Company. Cotton balls saturated with petroleum jelly are an effective home-made tinder expedient widely recommended by search and rescue teams. There are also mass-produced fire tinders which work even when wet.
  • Next to shelter, water is the most critical need for survival. You can survive weeks without food, but only days without water and there is no substitute for it. In a survival situation it is important to drink water frequently, but in small intervals. Don’t gulp it down. While there are a variety of large capacity water jugs and cans made for camping and RV use, you can do just as well by thoroughly washing and reusing beverage, milk and juice containers. Stackable plastic crates enable you to store a suitable supply in your basement shelter with a small footprint. Date containers and replace yearly.
  • Food is not considered a survival priority, but is an asset for morale. Only eat if you have adequate drinking water, as water is required for digestion. People with metabolic disorders, infants and the elderly require regular nutrition.
  • .
  • Acs Survival Skills Uburban

    1. 1. Arlington County ACS-RACES Operator Type III Annual Recertification Unit 1 Disaster Survival Skills for the Urban Environment
    2. 2. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Why teach “survival” in the city? </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophes vs. disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is about your SURVIVAL , not volunteering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priorities for human survival </li></ul><ul><li>Break-out sessions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equipment and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Social implications of disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal security concerns </li></ul></ul>2
    3. 3. “ Disaster ” versus “Catastrophe” <ul><li>Disasters are short term </li></ul><ul><li>“ Make do for 3-4 days until help arrives…” </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic events are long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Katrina-scale hurricane, tsunami, earthquake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major terror attack, nuclear detonation, dirty bomb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No help is coming soon, “you are on your own” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete loss of civil infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal or no police, fire or EMS response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No electricity, municipal water, communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport of fuel / food is severely impaired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety agencies will be overwhelmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery is long term (over 30 days) </li></ul></ul>3
    4. 4. What the military survival schools teach: Seven Priorities For Survival: “Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst” <ul><li>Positive mental attitude </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid / Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling </li></ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul>4
    5. 5. Positive Mental Attitude Situational awareness, basic knowledge and a “survivor’s mindset” enable you to cope effectively <ul><li>STOP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm down, and size up your situation… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THINK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate which hazards are most likely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take stock of materials and resources around you </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OBSERVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orient yourself to your surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PLAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select equipment and supplies appropriately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACT! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Execute the plan, evaluate progress, adjust, go on. </li></ul></ul>5
    6. 6. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS <ul><li>Have an evacuation kit ready at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Don't presume that a disaster will be short-term </li></ul><ul><li>Pack essentials first, then consider comfort items </li></ul><ul><li>In real emergences, forget last-minute purchases </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for more supplies than you “think” you may need </li></ul><ul><li>Inspect / renew your supplies each spring and fall </li></ul><ul><li>Provide entertainment for young children. </li></ul>6
    7. 7. WHEN “IT” HITS THE FAN” Use these six steps in problem solving <ul><li>Size Up ...your Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine ... Objectives (stay or evacuate?) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify ... Resources (either stored supplies or salvaged materials from your surroundings) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate … Options (use the safest way) </li></ul><ul><li>Build action Plan (use your head) </li></ul><ul><li>Take ... Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>re-evaluate your action plan, adapt, improvise and overcome! </li></ul></ul>7
    8. 8. FIRST AID AND SANITATION <ul><li>Maintain personal and family health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt treatment reduces infection risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation reduces risk of disease vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water borne illnesses, diarrhea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major cause of dehydration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Increases your survivability! </li></ul>8
    9. 9. Disaster Injury Risk Factors <ul><li>Tool / equipment hazards , risk of hand, eye, head injuries, electric shock, chemical burns </li></ul><ul><li>Human factors , stress / fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Structural instability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma risk, falls, building collapse potential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrain , loose rock, fallen limbs, wet or insecure footing, risk of falls, puncture wounds and lacerations from debris. </li></ul>9
    10. 10. Disaster Contamination <ul><li>Stagnant surface water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosquito breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contaminated flood waters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage treatment system overflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum, industrial, agricultural chemical contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Airborne contaminant plumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, dust, toxic gases, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or radioactive fallout. </li></ul></ul>10
    11. 11. SHELTER 11 <ul><li>Protection from the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Wind and rain resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation from cold </li></ul>
    12. 12. The “Stay or Evacuate” Decision If evacuation is not mandatory, the same safety rules for entering a structure apply to using your home as shelter 12 <ul><li>DO NOT OCCUPY IF : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is structural damage (6 sides of the “box” are not plumb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities cannot be controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure was damaged in a fire </li></ul></ul>DO NOT occupy a floor that has been flooded, mold grows fast !
    13. 13. EVACUATION PLANNING <ul><li>It’s usually best to relocate with friends or relatives who live outside of the affected area </li></ul><ul><li>Don't rely on government-run shelters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are an “option of last resort” for those unable to evacuate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evacuation route selection is important </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your vehicle can carry essentials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A huge “bug-out” vehicle is a handicap on crowded roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It uses more fuel, which may be expensive / scarce in an emergency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don't plan on fuel being available en route </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In normal times always keep your gas tank at least half full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon warning an event is imminent, conserve fuel, keep tank ¾ full </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry extra fuel containers outside the vehicle </li></ul></ul>13
    14. 14. FROM NATIONAL THREAT SCENARIO Nuclear Detonation – 10-Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device <ul><li>An attack may: </li></ul><ul><li>be single or up to a dozen detonations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- on specific or random targets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>be an act of a non-state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-, i.e. a terrorist group such as Al Qaeda. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>be threatened to trigger a political result, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- bend will of the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>involve either a detonation (fission/fusion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- or release via a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>occur all in one attack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– or recur over a period of weeks, months, years. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Urban 10 KT Ground Burst <ul><li>1/3 mile from epicenter all buildings are destroyed, virtually no one left alive </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 mile radius major damage, most people not in substantial shelter killed or injured </li></ul><ul><li>1 mile radius moderate damage, buildings ravaged by fires and many blast survivors will die later from lethal radiation exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Downwind debris plume further exposes tens of thousands to lethal radiation dose unless survivors are adequately sheltered and effectively decontaminated. </li></ul>
    16. 16. LOW YIELD WEAPON EFECTS <ul><li>Contamination from a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) would cover up to a few hundred acres with low-level radioactive material; </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>A nuclear detonation would affect large areas (10-100 sq. miles) damaged by direct effects and 100s to 1,000s of sq. miles with radioactive fallout . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) – a terrorist attack would most likely be a small device <10 kilotons yield, EMP effect of a ground burst would be mostly within the Moderate Damage Radius, but also propagated by conductors such as power and telephone lines, railroad tracks, pipelines, etc. </li></ul>
    17. 17. EMP Precautions <ul><li>Disconnect electronics from conductors ( AC mains and antennas ) </li></ul><ul><li>Store small solid-state electronics having Field Effect Transistors (FET) or other integrated circuits (IC) in a Faraday Cage ( an unplugged microwave oven ) </li></ul><ul><li>Construct EMP-resistant containers constructed with a continuously sealed metal barrier (foil covered cardboard boxes) </li></ul><ul><li>Most susceptible to EMP damage are automobiles with onboard &quot;computers&quot; which control essential functions. </li></ul>
    18. 18. EVACUATION <ul><li>Feasible only if all personnel can evacuate before fallout contamination arrives and; </li></ul><ul><li>Essential functions for Continuity of Operations are transferred to an alternate facility </li></ul><ul><li>Affected area would have to be small and warning time adequate to execute the evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Detonation effects (blast/thermal/EMP) will likely impede evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuees may be exposed and/or contaminated. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Evacuate or Stay Decision? Conclusion from FEMA Urban-Rural Evacuation State Planners Workshop Sept. 2006 <ul><li>Given </li></ul><ul><li>● Population of the DC Metro area </li></ul><ul><li>● Propensity to self-evacuate, overwhelmingly </li></ul><ul><li>by automobile </li></ul><ul><li>● Wide distribution of evacuation destinations, </li></ul><ul><li>● Perceived vulnerability to terror attack, </li></ul><ul><li>and anticipation of multiple attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Result : </li></ul><ul><li>● A large-scale, chaotic mass self-evacuation should be anticipated. </li></ul>
    20. 20. SHELTER IN PLACE <ul><li>Critical facilities that cannot evacuate (hospitals, EOCs) must continue to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary if fallout/contamination would arrive before evacuation can be completed </li></ul><ul><li>Fallout Shelters will be needed to protect against high level radiation/detonation </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter-in-place ( not necessarily Fallout Shelter ) near RDD/very low level </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter stay may range from a few days to 2 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities outside affected area can organize rescue/evacuation effort </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter occupants may be exposed and/or contaminated. </li></ul>
    21. 21. SHELTER IN PLACE <ul><li>Necessary if operations can not be transferred or if staff, patients or clients cannot evacuate </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary if needed to support operations of other response agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Must have Radiological Monitoring & Exposure Control capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Facilities may be used to shelter families of the staff </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Facilities will not be used to shelter the general public. </li></ul>
    22. 22. DECONTAMINATION after a flood or attack S tart immediately, even if you don’t know what the agent is . <ul><li>Sandia decontamination foam (US Patent 6,566,574 B1) sold </li></ul><ul><li>as Scott's Liquid Gold Mold Control 500 in hardware stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Is effective against most chemical and </li></ul><ul><li>biological agents, including nerve, blister, </li></ul><ul><li>anthrax, SARS, Norwalk, avian and common flu. </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used for hospital /hotel sanitization </li></ul><ul><li>mold remediation in commercial buildings, </li></ul><ul><li>cleaning / neutralizing agricultural sprayers. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate cost, about $30 at Home Depot. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    23. 23. EXPEDIENT FIELD DECONTAMINATION if you are contaminated: <ul><li>Remove everything, including jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Cut off clothing normally removed over the head </li></ul><ul><li>Place contaminated clothing in plastic bag, tie closed </li></ul><ul><li>Wash your hands before using them to shower </li></ul><ul><li>Flush entire body with cool water </li></ul><ul><li>Blot dry with absorbent cloth </li></ul><ul><li>Put on clean clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use of affected areas, to prevent re-exposure </li></ul><ul><li>If professional help arrives, report to responders for thorough decontamination and medical assessment. </li></ul>
    24. 24. NUCLEAR ATTACK ISSUES <ul><li>Structural damage to shelter from nearby detonation </li></ul><ul><li>Fire in the shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerously high radiation levels </li></ul><ul><li>Severely high temperatures and humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide imbalance in the shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Depletion of essential supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and injury </li></ul><ul><li>Unrest, anxiety, crime or defiance of order or authority </li></ul>
    25. 25. Substantial barriers offer best protection Time - Fallout radiation intensity decays rapidly; 90% in just the first 7 hours . The less time you spend in a radiation field, the less dose received. Distance - T he farther you are from a source, the less dose you receive. Shielding - Denser (heavier, massive) materials absorb more radiation. Greater thickness of any given material absorbs more radiation.
    26. 26. Protection Factors & Mass of Materials How Much Protection? PF* Lead Steel Concrete Earth Water Wood 2 .3&quot;&quot; .7&quot; 2.0&quot; 3.3&quot; 5&quot; 9&quot; 4 .5&quot; 1.5&quot; 5.0&quot; 7.0&quot; 10&quot; 15&quot; 8 1.0&quot; 2.0&quot; 6.5&quot; 10.0&quot; 15&quot; 27&quot; 16 1.2&quot; 3.0&quot; 9.0&quot; 14.0&quot; 20&quot; 3 ft 32 1.5&quot; 4.0&quot; 12.0&quot; 15.0&quot; 2 ft 4 ft 64 2.0&quot; 4.2&quot; 13.2&quot; 19.8&quot; 2.5ft 4.5 ft 128 2.1&quot; 5.0&quot; 15.0&quot; 2 ft 3 ft 5 ft 1000 3.0&quot; 7.0&quot; 22.0&quot; 33.0&quot; 4 ft - 2000 3.3&quot; 7.7&quot; 2 ft 3 ft 4.5 ft - Outside radiation, divided by the Protection Factor, is reduced in proportion. For example, if the outside radiation rate is 1,000 R/hr, a person shielded by 3 ft. of earth would receive a dose rate of .5 R/hr. but a person shielded by 1 ft of earth would receive about 10 R/hr. *PF = “Protection Factor” refers to the ratio between the radiation dose rate of the OUTSIDE to that INSIDE the shelter, for instance a PF = 10 means that the inside dose rate is 1/10th the outside rate.
    27. 27. IMPROVE HOME FALLOUT PROTECTION Increase shielding by: <ul><li>1) Plan / improvise vents, ventilation & 2 entrances. </li></ul><ul><li>2) Add wooden shoring supports below each story. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Add up to 12” maximum dirt on upper floors/roof. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Cover window opening with plywood sheeting. </li></ul><ul><li>5) Pile dirt to ceiling height along outside walls & windows. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Sheltering at Home During an Emergency For using a building without working utilities as shelter <ul><li>Exhaust – candles, camp stoves, lanterns, generators, heaters, charcoal grills, all generate carbon monoxide and must not be used indoors! </li></ul><ul><li>Open flame – above ignition sources must never be left unattended! </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel – most of the above require flammable fuels to operate, which must be stored outdoors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Fire Marshal approved fuel containers </li></ul></ul>14
    29. 29. Generator Safety Tips From the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission <ul><li>Carbon monoxide hazard! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never use indoors or in attached garages! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up OUTDOORS in well ventilated, dry area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Away from open windows or HVAC air intakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under a canopy, open shed or carport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electrocution Hazard! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground both the generator and equipment! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plug only individual devices into generator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT connect into household AC! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UL-rated cords of gage adequate for load </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explosion / fire hazard ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel vapors traveling along the ground can be ignited by switching equipment or appliance pilot lights! </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Improvised Emergency Shelters As in all real estate, most important is location: <ul><li>Avoid low spots with poor drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Seek a gently sloped area so that surface water drains away </li></ul><ul><li>Sheltered from prevailing winds </li></ul><ul><li>Away from bodies of water ( attracts insects and animals ) </li></ul><ul><li>Insulated from direct contact with ground, rock, or concrete, which conducts away body heat. </li></ul>15
    31. 31. Avoid as shelter <ul><li>Areas around downed utility lines </li></ul><ul><li>In or near culverts </li></ul><ul><li>Within the “collapse zone” of a damaged building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(maintain 2:1 ratio of distance away to building height) </li></ul></ul>16
    32. 32. Improvised Shelters <ul><li>Sheds </li></ul><ul><li>Tents </li></ul><ul><li>Tarps </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles </li></ul>17
    33. 33. Don’t disable a good car! <ul><li>Remove car batteries to power communications and shelter lighting only from cars that do not start </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a car starts reserve it for emergency evacuation, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use it as a “battery charger” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage lighting, remove dome lights, tail lights, trunk lights, etc. & with at least 36” of wires. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position batteries in shelter; attach wires & lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As batteries discharge, replace with new batteries or recharge batteries. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Emergency Shelter Materials Salvage building materials from debris or from damaged structures only when it can be done safely <ul><li>TYVEK building wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic sheeting </li></ul><ul><li>Roofing paper and shingles </li></ul><ul><li>Siding, plywood </li></ul><ul><li>Chain link fence </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Carpeting </li></ul><ul><li>Wire, rope, and fasteners </li></ul>18
    35. 35. Build Your Shelter In Layers <ul><li>Structural framing , lumber, plywood, fencing, metal </li></ul><ul><li>Fasteners , reinforce structural connections with nails, wire or rope ties, wooden spikes </li></ul><ul><li>Water and wind proofing , TYVEK, plastic sheeting, tarp, shingles, roofing paper </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation , drywall, leaves, tree branches, carpeting, (may also be used as ballast to hold water/wind proofing layer in place) </li></ul>19
    36. 36. SIGNALLING <ul><li>Day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirror flashes – best daylight signal device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightly colored cloth flag / panel (VS-17) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICAO surface-to-air signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Night </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashing strobe light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal flares </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whistle, vehicle horn </li></ul></ul>V Require assistance X Need medical assistance Y Yes - affirmative N No - negative -> I am proceeding in this direction  20 
    37. 37. Signal Mirror <ul><li>Simple, inexpensive, effective </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t rely on batteries or pyrotechnics </li></ul><ul><li>Visible from 5 to 10 miles in daylight </li></ul>21
    38. 38. FIRE <ul><li>Maintains body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Great morale booster </li></ul><ul><li>Deters wild animals and insects </li></ul><ul><li>Boils water </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks food </li></ul><ul><li>Used as day (smoke) </li></ul><ul><li>or night (light) signal </li></ul>22
    39. 39. Fire making methods <ul><li>Matches or lighter </li></ul><ul><li>Flint and steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cotton ball and petroleum jelly as tinder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battery and steel wool </li></ul><ul><li>Burning lens </li></ul>23
    40. 40. WATER <ul><li>Minimum for drinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 gallon per person, per day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More water is needed for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking and food preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene, sanitation and decontamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Store a two week supply as minimum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food grade containers with screw caps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Away from direct sunlight </li></ul></ul>24
    41. 41. Emergency Water Sources <ul><li>Captive water in household hot water tank and interior plumbing is OK </li></ul><ul><li>Filter cloudy water to remove particulates, using an EPA-rated filter with a pore size ≤ 1 micron, then: </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect with Clorox (6% sodium hypochlorite) add 8 drops of bleach per gallon if clear, 16 drops if cloudy, let water stand 15 minutes before use </li></ul><ul><li>Or boil vigorously for 15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Store potable water in clean containers. </li></ul>25
    42. 42. All surface water is contaminated! <ul><li>All natural sources (from springs, ponds, rivers or streams) must be boiled or chemically disinfected. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical disinfection or boiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kills bacteria and viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t remove particulates or chemical pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee filters, etc. remove gross particulates only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA-rated filters (pore size is smaller than 1 micron) are needed to remove bacteria, viruses and Giardia cysts, but don’t remove chemical pollutants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distillation is the most effective method. </li></ul>26
    43. 43. FOOD <ul><li>Lowest of the seven survival priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Need is mostly mental, because we are used to eating regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy people will do OK without food for a week or more, if they are well hydrated </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced nutrition is a more important health factor for elderly and infants. </li></ul>27
    44. 44. Shelf life of foods stored in the home <ul><li>Food in a refrigerator is safe for a day after the power goes off, either use it in 24 hours or throw it away </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen food is safe if there are still ice crystals, once thawed, cook and consume it within 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Next use non-perishables and dry staples </li></ul><ul><li>Canned foods are best for long term storage (up to 4 years) but are heavy to transport and bulky to store </li></ul><ul><li>Dry packaged foods are easiest to transport </li></ul><ul><li>Choose foods requiring minimal preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Eat at least one balanced meal daily </li></ul><ul><li>Include nutritional supplements in supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Drink enough water. </li></ul>28
    45. 45. Emergency Food supplies <ul><li>MREs, or Heater Meals ® </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared survival rations </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive survival methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul></ul>29
    46. 46. TOOLS and EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Folding utility knife or multi-tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scout type, Leatherman®, Swiss Army or Mil-K-818 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual can opener </li></ul><ul><li>Sturdy fixed blade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For chopping, digging, or as pry bar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shovel </li></ul><ul><li>Hand saw </li></ul><ul><li>Axe </li></ul>30 ↓
    47. 47. OTHER SUPPLIES Each person should have their own backpack of personal essentials <ul><li>Flashlight </li></ul><ul><li>Portable radio </li></ul><ul><li>Extra batteries </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid Kit, (containing a first aid manual) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal medications and sanitation supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking and eating utensils </li></ul><ul><li>Wool blanket or sleeping bag for each person </li></ul><ul><li>Sturdy shoes and extra socks </li></ul><ul><li>Rain gear </li></ul><ul><li>Change of warm clothing and underwear </li></ul><ul><li>Items for special needs, care of infants </li></ul>31
    48. 48. DISASTER FINANCIAL PLANNING <ul><li>Electronic transactions, account verifications may be impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuate with enough cash for at least two weeks of essentials </li></ul><ul><li>Carry account numbers, contact addresses and telephone numbers for all important persons and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Helping one's unprepared friends and neighbors may prove expensive! </li></ul>32
    49. 49. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DISASTERS Cumulative psychological effects upon survivors <ul><li>Evacuate or Stay? – Do you have a plan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will you go? Is it safe to travel? Can you REALLY get there? Do you have enough resources to make it work? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warn friends not to invite others to come and evacuate with them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They’ll overwhelm your limited resources! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never allow family members to be separated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even if it means waiting for later rescue and/or evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The well prepared may be threatened by those who weren't – get to know your neighbors NOW for a safer community later in case of a disaster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make plans to ensure neighborhood security/family protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post a guard in rotating shifts, to deter roving criminals or looters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep firearms and ammunition safely secured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a home firearms safety-protection course </li></ul></ul>33
    50. 50. Lessons from Hurricane Katrina When help arrives, you may get it “…….whether you want it or not.” <ul><li>Don't believe that all rescuers will respect your property </li></ul><ul><li>Relief workers from other States often don't know local laws </li></ul><ul><li>Relief organizations have their own bureaucratic requirements that may conflict with your needs </li></ul><ul><li>Expect frustration over lack of communication and empathy by rescuers and local/State government. </li></ul>
    51. 51. IN CONCLUSION: <ul><li>Positive attitude – S top T hink O bserve P lan </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid / Sanitation – Maintain proper hygiene, preserve family health, and prevent illness or injury </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter – Protection from environmental hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling / Communication- be heard / seen </li></ul><ul><li>Fire – Warmth, light, food prep, water sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Water – Prevent water-borne illnesses through f iltration, chemical sterilization, boiling or distillation </li></ul><ul><li>Food – E at at least one balanced meal daily, drink enough water, include nutritional supplements </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment- Flashlight, knife, saw, axe, shovel </li></ul><ul><li>Planning – Prepare a Kit, Make A Plan! </li></ul>
    52. 52. Sources for further information <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    53. 53. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Fairfax County Fire & Rescue Department </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Huntsville-Madison County, Alabama, EMA </li></ul><ul><li>Doug Ritter </li></ul><ul><li>Derek Rowan </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Willey </li></ul><ul><li>University of Florida IFAS Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Cooperative Extension Service </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Department of Emergency Management </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Department of Health </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia RACES, Incorporated </li></ul>