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Acs Survival Skills Uburban

  1. Arlington County ACS-RACES Operator Type III Annual Recertification Unit 1 Disaster Survival Skills for the Urban Environment
  2. Substantial barriers offer best protection Time - Fallout radiation intensity decays rapidly; 90% in just the first 7 hours . The less time you spend in a radiation field, the less dose received. Distance - T he farther you are from a source, the less dose you receive. Shielding - Denser (heavier, massive) materials absorb more radiation. Greater thickness of any given material absorbs more radiation.
  3. Protection Factors & Mass of Materials How Much Protection? PF* Lead Steel Concrete Earth Water Wood 2 .3"" .7" 2.0" 3.3" 5" 9" 4 .5" 1.5" 5.0" 7.0" 10" 15" 8 1.0" 2.0" 6.5" 10.0" 15" 27" 16 1.2" 3.0" 9.0" 14.0" 20" 3 ft 32 1.5" 4.0" 12.0" 15.0" 2 ft 4 ft 64 2.0" 4.2" 13.2" 19.8" 2.5ft 4.5 ft 128 2.1" 5.0" 15.0" 2 ft 3 ft 5 ft 1000 3.0" 7.0" 22.0" 33.0" 4 ft - 2000 3.3" 7.7" 2 ft 3 ft 4.5 ft - Outside radiation, divided by the Protection Factor, is reduced in proportion. For example, if the outside radiation rate is 1,000 R/hr, a person shielded by 3 ft. of earth would receive a dose rate of .5 R/hr. but a person shielded by 1 ft of earth would receive about 10 R/hr. *PF = “Protection Factor” refers to the ratio between the radiation dose rate of the OUTSIDE to that INSIDE the shelter, for instance a PF = 10 means that the inside dose rate is 1/10th the outside rate.

Editor's Notes

  1. While the risk of truly catastrophic events is very limited, they cannot be ignored. The long term consequences of a Katrina-level storm, terrorist or enemy attack are potentially severe. When the unexpected happens, having a positive attitude, being prepared and knowing some basic survival skills are key elements to keeping your family safe and secure. We can’t teach you everything you need to know in a few hours. We will introduce the fundamentals, point you to sources of further information, and encourage you to practice these skills on your own, so that you can assess each situation accordingly to create a stable and safe environment for your family.
  2. Whether you are in the wilderness or the city, survival is summarized by the “rule of threes” Being stupid for as little as three seconds can be fatal if you are unaware of dangers to which you are exposed. Being without safe air to breathe can kill you within three minutes. Being without shelter from exposure to a hostile environment can kill you in about 3 hours. Being without water to replace fluid loss through urine, sweat and respiration impairs your body’s ability to perform at a survivor’s level after about 3 days. While a healthy body can sustain itself without food for about 3 weeks, fire, food and adequate hydration maintain body warmth, health and stamina and provide a valuable psychological boost which helps to keep you focused on your survival priorities.
  3. Loss of AC power for 3-4 days is an inconvenience. But if power and municipal water were out for a month and the Giant supermarket and Walmart were “gone” it would be entirely another matter. So think beyond the short term. Survival is said to be 5% physical stress and 95% mental. Being aware and prepared enables you to reduce the mental stress to a manageable level. Be resourceful. Use neighborhood resources to take charge of your own recovery. Get to know your neighbors now. Find those with whom you share common values. Build cooperation and trust. Work together to build a safe and secure community for your families. When disaster strikes there is safety in numbers. Band together to protect and help each other. It’s much easier than being cold, hungry, alone and afraid in the dark.
  4. Military survival schools have experts in evaluating which techniques have proven to work in extreme circumstances. So we won’t re-invent the wheel. What follows comes straight from world class experts. A short program and exercise cannot teach you all there is to know about surviving a disaster in an urban environment or anywhere else. Throughout the presentation we will provide links to obtain further information. We also urge you to assemble a family disaster supplies kit, actually use these items, to become familiar and practice with them, so that you will develop skill and confidence. The break out sessions will demonstrate some fundamental techniques which you can teach family members.
  5. Every survival situation is unique. Take a few moments in time to size up and assess your situation. By identifying hazards, and becoming aware of available resources in your environment, you develop a effective action plan and act on it. Take charge, set a good example by exercising positive leadership, maintain discipline and cultivate teamwork. Don’t let yourself become a victim. Taking time to think avoids the three fatal seconds of stupidity.
  6. You are responsible to care for your family. A family disaster supplies kit should contain items to either shelter in place for two weeks or to evacuate and relocate with family or friends outside the affected area until it is safe to go home again. Everyone in the family should know the family out of area contact, be familiar with where disaster equipment and supplies are located and how to use them. Involve family members in disaster planning, shopping for disaster supplies and inspecting kit contents, to replace partially used or expired items.
  7. When confronted with a survival situation keep your mind and body active. A positive attitude is your most valuable survival resource. Give yourself tasks to perform. Keep focused on what you need to accomplish. No matter how bad a situation may seem, you are not alone. Work together with your neighbors and help each other. You are better off than those who were caught clueless, unprepared and unaware. Because you are still alive. Take action and choose not to become a victim.
  8. In U.S. Army experience more personnel deployed in combat zones require evacuation to rear areas for medical treatment due to infection of minor wounds and sickness caused by poor sanitation, than as a result of enemy action. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that a million people become sick each year from consuming contaminated food or water. Boil all water, cook foods thoroughly, keep food preparation surfaces clean, bury all wastes and above all wash your hands often! Frequent hand washing with soap and water, or pre-packaged wipes and sanitizers is your best protection. Carry first aid and sanitation supplies which enable you to wash frequently, promptly treat minor wounds and manage infection.
  9. Being aware of and alert for hazards is vital in your continuing size-up. Evaluate your options and act responsibly To avoid injuries don’t take unnecessary chances. Work the safest way. Work at a deliberate steady pace, take frequent breaks, avoid exhaustion Stay hydrated to reduce fatigue and remain aware. Always work with a buddy. Safe decisions are based on situational awareness and open communication.
  10. Here are some good examples of the typical hazards to which you may be exposed in a disaster. There are simple steps you can take to minimize exposures, and to avoid people bringing contaminants into your shelter. Construct an entry way for scraping and washing boots, or shoes or coveralls, and for their removal and storage. Next improvise a field shower and hand washing area for decontamination and changing into clean clothes prior to entering living areas. Having a supply of single-use, disposable N95 respirators may avoid long-term health effects of exposure to smoke or dusts, which affected WTC responders and survivors.
  11. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 70 percent of winter storm deaths occur in automobiles, from carbon monoxide poisoning or hypothermia. Most hypothermia deaths occur when air temperatures are between 30 and 50 degrees F. A metal vehicle provide protection from wind, but is not an ideal shelter because it does loses heat readily in winter and quickly over-heats in direct summer sun. An emergency shelter must be large enough to protect you, but small enough to contain your body heat and hold as much warmth as possible, while venting dangerous carbon monoxide to the outside. A bird nest is sturdy, well insulated, protected from wind, uses the overhead tree canopy as water proofing and meets the basic requirements of a shelter.
  12. The for and probably most important decision you must make is whether to evacuate or stay where you are. The primary concern is safety. If it is safer where you are than if out on the road, stay put, unless authorities have called for a mandatory evacuation. If evacuation is not mandatory, do a quick survey of your home. Has your home been flooded or damaged by fire, falling or blowing debris? Are there any uncontrolled water or gas leaks, or arcing energized wires?
  13. If you must evacuate, the process is less stressful if you have planned ahead of time where you will go, who you will take and how you will get there. Temporary relocation with friends or relatives outside the affected area is usually the best choice. Avoid having top use public shelters unless you really have no other alternative. They are called “shelters of last resort” for a reason. If your area has pre-established evacuation routes, use them. Pack your disaster supplies in containers which are readily transportable. Keep your vehicle gas tank at least ¾ full if aware of an approaching storm.
  14. If you may be contaminated, remove EVERYTHING touching your skin, including jewelry. Cut off clothing normally removed over the head, to avoid ingesting any agent. Wash your hands before using them to shower. Flush the entire body with cool water. Do not use hot water, as it opens the pores and may increase exposure to the agent. Blot dry with absorbent cloth and put on clean clothes. Then report to responders for thorough decontamination, medical assessment and treatment. Next slide>
  15. According to the Centers for Disease Control, carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings occur most often during fall and winter, when people are more likely to use gas furnaces, heaters and generators in their homes. The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are nausea, headache and dizziness, which are easily mistaken for other conditions such as a viral illness. T o Prevent Carbon Monoxide Exposure have all gas-, oil-, or coal-burning appliances serviced annually by a qualified technician. Install a battery-operated CO detector in your home and replace the battery each spring and fall. If your CO detector sounds, evacuate immediately and telephone 911. Seek prompt medical attention if you suspect CO poisoning and are feeling dizzy, light-headed, or nauseated. Do not use a generator, charcoal grill, camp stove, or other gasoline- or charcoal-burning device inside your home, basement, or garage or near a window. Do not burn anything in a stove or fireplace that is not vented. Do not heat your house with a gas oven.
  16. Generators use internal combustion engines which produce carbon monoxide! Ventilation of exhaust and fuel vapors is critical. NEVER run a generator indoors, or in attached garages, even if you leave the door open. The same prohibition n applies to getting up a generator near or HVAC intakes or open windows. Don’t connect or plug a portable generator directly into the household electric service. Plug or connect only individual devices into the generator. Use only UL-rated cords and equipment and ensure adequate grounding of the generator and all equipment. Don’t set up generators or feed lines on wet ground. Remember that fuel vapors are heavier than air, travel along the ground and can be ignited by any arc, spark, or open flame. Store fuel outdoors in a ventilated shed and only use Fire Marshall approved containers.
  17. Metal vehicles make less than ideal shelters, but do provide weather resistant storage for supplies. Abandoned cars may contain useful materials such as their, fuel, oil, radio, battery, upholstery, tire changing tools, spare tire, etc. Search and rescue teams generally recommend that you stay nearby your vehicle if its location is safe, because you are more likely to be found near it. So construct an improvised shelter nearby. If you must abandon a crash site and attempt to walk out, leave a note telling rescuers of your intentions and direction of travel, then stick to that route.
  18. Every survival kit should include a signal mirror. This is the effective daytime signal. Mirror flashes are visible from aircraft up to ten miles or more. An inexpensive military VS-17 panel is multi-purpose., serving as a rain wrap or improvised stretcher, as well as being highly visible up to a mile away. Fire provides signal capability as well as light and warmth. Adding green vegetation to a fire produces white smoke, adding petroleum or rubber produces black smoke. Every survival kit should include a flashlight, for safety, as a dark-chasing morale maintainer, as well as for signaling A whistle is an inexpensive signal which every family member should carry. A whistle blast carries farther than you can yell and uses little energy. A US Coast Guard approved pea-less, waterproof whistle designed for marine use, such as Fox 40, ACR or Skyblazer are recommended.
  19. Laminated glass military signal mirrors are the best and most effective. The larger 5”x7” mirrors made for lifeboat kits are more effective than the 3”x4” pocket models. There are also plastic signal mirrors which float and are very light weight. However plastic mirrors scratch easily and should be stored in a sleeve when not in use. Improvised signals using CD’s, salvaged vehicle and the like are better than nothing, but are less effective. Practice using a signal mirror and learn how to aim it. It should be common sense, but I’ll tell you anyway, please DO NOT practice on aircraft.
  20. Fire provides us with warmth and light. It enables us to purify water, cook our food, make tools, keep animals away, dry us when we are wet, comfort our souls and make us feel safe when we are alone in the dark. Fire is your friend, just don’t get stupid around fire.
  21. Include matches in your survival kit, but not regular stick or book matches. “Strike-anywhere” wooden stick matches can be waterproofed by holding tweezers and dipping completely in melted paraffin, laying them out individually on aluminum foil to dry, storing them in a waterproof container. Or you can buy “lifeboat matches” which are made especially for this purpose. If the flint striker is stored inside the match container, match heads must be stored so that they can’t rub against the striker, causing an explosion. Military survival kits contain the magnesium fire starting tool shown above which is made by Doan Machinery and Equipment Company. Cotton balls saturated with petroleum jelly are an effective home-made tinder expedient widely recommended by search and rescue teams. There are also mass-produced fire tinders which work even when wet.
  22. Next to shelter, water is the most critical need for survival. You can survive weeks without food, but only days without water and there is no substitute for it. In a survival situation it is important to drink water frequently, but in small intervals. Don’t gulp it down. While there are a variety of large capacity water jugs and cans made for camping and RV use, you can do just as well by thoroughly washing and reusing beverage, milk and juice containers. Stackable plastic crates enable you to store a suitable supply in your basement shelter with a small footprint. Date containers and replace yearly.
  23. Food is not considered a survival priority, but is an asset for morale. Only eat if you have adequate drinking water, as water is required for digestion. People with metabolic disorders, infants and the elderly require regular nutrition.
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