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Research and MLA


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Research and MLA

  1. 1. Research Papers and MLA Documentation
  2. 2. Building a Research Paper Step
Schedule Step
Topic/Thesis Step
Sources Step
Information Step
Outline Step
  3. 3. Evaluating Your Sources • Should be relevant • Should be authoritative and stable – not Wikipedia... good starting point, not authoritative • Must be current • Should be comprehensive • Should provide links
  4. 4. What Must be Cited? • Words, ideas, concepts, graphics, format/design, artistic works • direct quotes (from one word to full length quotes) • restating an idea, thesis, or opinion • paraphrased information
  5. 5. What Does Not Have to be Cited? • COMMON KNOWLEDGE – Information that is widely known and indisputable • i.e. Biographical info • Information found in dictionaries • Statistics/information that can be easily found in several sources and are not likely to vary from source to source
  6. 6. Formatting the Body of the Paper • 1 inch margins on ALL • ALL sources must be sides cited in the body of paper and on Works Cited page • Double-spaced text • In upper corner: your • Easy-to-read font name, teacher’s name, – Size 10 or 12 class, date, and page number • Left-aligned text • Titled
  7. 7. Formatting Quotes • Short Quotations: (1-2 lines) put quotation marks before and after quote, but do not indent • Long Quotations: (3+ lines) indent but do not put quotation marks before and after
  8. 8. INCORPORATING SOURCES • There are 2 places where you must indicate a resource used in your paper: – In a parenthetical directly following the sentence in which the info is used – On the Works Cited Page
  9. 9. INTERNAL CITATIONS • DO NOT END ALL PARAGRAPHS WITH INTERNAL CITATIONS!!! Your thoughts and ideas should be most prominent and the research should support what you are saying. Do not let the research be dominant! • Whatever is listed in the parenthesis of the internal citation should match the first words in the Works Cited line. • Example: – Long, David. Abraham Lincoln. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2001. – (Long 24) • If there is duplicated first words, use first words and next different word in parenthetical • Never, never, never use the Internet address as the internal citation
  10. 10. Examples of Internal Citations Works Cited Postman, George. “Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business.” New York: Penguin-Viking, 1995. One historian argues that since the invention of the television “our politics, religion, news, athletics, education and commerce have been transformed into congenial adjuncts of show business, largely without protest or even much popular notice.” (Postman) Postman points out that since the invention of television “our politics, religion, news, athletics, education and commerce have been transformed into congenial adjuncts of show business, largely without protest or even much popular notice.” (3-4) Postman argues that television has changed virtually every aspect of our culture into a form of show business. (Postman)
  11. 11. Works Cited Page • Begin each entry flush with the left margin. Indent each line that follows. – Hanging indents • double spaced • alphabetical order • All citings begin with the author’s last name. If there is no author, then use the source title. • If there is more than one entry by the same author, then alphabetize those entries by the books’ titles. • Instead of repeating the author’s name each time, type 3 hyphens followed by a period and then the title. (---. Leaves of Grass.) • Italicize titles of larger works (books, plays, films) • Use quotation marks for titles of smaller works (poems, songs, etc) • When listing the date- Day Month Year (10 April 2005)
  12. 12. MOST COMMON CITATIONS • Book: – Author’s last name, first name. Title. City: Publisher, copyright date. p#. • Internet Source: – Author’s last name, first name. “Title”. Website name/title. Publication date. Page or section or paragraph. Access date. • Periodical: – Author’s last name, first name. “Title”. Name of Periodical. Publication date: pages, volume, or section.
  13. 13. McMullen 10 Works Cited Carr, Sara. "Closely Watched Unext Rolls Out Its First Courses. Chronicle of Higher Education 12 May 2000: A50. Clayton, Mark S. "Click 'n’ Learn." Christian Science Monitor 1 Aug. 2000: 15. Hartigan, Rachel. " Smart New Degrees Take Center Stage." Graduate Schools. Special issue of U.S. News and World Report 28 Oct. 2002:6-10 Jones International University. Home page. 1 Apr. 2004 <>. Sample Keegan, Desmond. Distance Training: Taking Stock at a Time of Change. London: Works Cited Routledge, 2000. Mangan, Katherine S. "Buyers, Be Wary." U.S. News and World Report 15 Oct. 2001: Page 68-70. - - - . "Top Business Schools Seek to Ride a Bull Market in On-Line MBAs. " Chronicle of Higher Education 15 Jan. 1999: A27-28. Shea, Rachel Hartigan. " So Where's the Beef? " U.S. News and World Report 15 Oct. 2001: 44-50. Willis, Barry. Distance Education: A Practical Guide. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educ. Technology Publ., 1993.