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(文化研究) 質性研究之紮根理論-洪銓修 老師


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(文化研究) 質性研究之紮根理論-洪銓修 老師

  1. 1. Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory in Ethnographic Research 象徵互動論與據證理論在俗民誌研究的運用 主講人:洪銓修 教授 雲林科技大學 應用外語系
  2. 2. Speech Outline <ul><li>Quantitative-Qualitative Dichotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic Research </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Interactionism </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Constant Comparative Method in Grounded </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quantitative-Qualitative Dichotomy Quantitative Inquiry Qualitative Inquiry <ul><li>Positivist tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Hard data </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-determined and given </li></ul><ul><li>Control and hypothesis- </li></ul><ul><li>testing </li></ul><ul><li>Regularities and frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive and structured </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretative tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Soft data </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended and responsive </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery and hypothesis- </li></ul><ul><li>generation </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness and particularity </li></ul><ul><li>Themes and motifs </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive and grounded </li></ul>
  4. 4. Qualitative Research <ul><li>What is qualitative research? </li></ul><ul><li>It does not rely on numbers or statistical inferences as the primary means of answering questions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not concerned with making generalizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting and analytic procedures are usually cyclic. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Qualitative Research <ul><li>The importance of rationale : </li></ul><ul><li>A qualitative study requires much more exposition of the rationale it is based on than a quantitative one. </li></ul><ul><li>A researcher must be aware of the distinction between a study using qualitative methodology and one that is qualitative in essence. </li></ul><ul><li>Care must be taken of both rationale of research paradigm and rationale concerning the subject matter. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Data Analysis <ul><li>Data analysis: coding, categorization, </li></ul><ul><li>description, and interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Coding: generating concepts (labeling) </li></ul><ul><li>Categorization—a process of generating </li></ul><ul><li>classification of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Description—to present the concepts and </li></ul><ul><li>categories in a narrative way, sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>using direct quotes to enhance authenticity. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation (see next page) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Qualitative Research <ul><li>Interpretation : </li></ul><ul><li>A process of theoretical sampling that will lead </li></ul><ul><li>to construction of a theory, going beyond the </li></ul><ul><li>literal, manifest meaning of the text to a </li></ul><ul><li>somewhat speculative reading of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical sampling must be grounded: based </li></ul><ul><li>on concepts that have proven theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>relevance. Concepts repeatedly present or </li></ul><ul><li>notably absent should be considered significant </li></ul><ul><li>and possibly relevant to the evolving theory. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Construction of Theory <ul><li>Theory uses concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>The concepts are related by means of </li></ul><ul><li>statements of relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is not merely the main idea or </li></ul><ul><li>the summarizing statement of all the data collected. It must have MEANING, a meaningful organization of the concepts. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Question of Generalizability <ul><li>Results of a qualitative research must be </li></ul><ul><li>contextualized. </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts should be made to specify the </li></ul><ul><li>conditions under which our phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>exist, the action/interaction that pertains </li></ul><ul><li>to them, and the associated outcomes or </li></ul><ul><li>consequences (Strauss and Corbin,1990). </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ Ethnographic Research”— Definitions <ul><li>Ethnographic research is: </li></ul><ul><li>work of describing and explaining a given culture at a particular point in time (Janesick, 1991). </li></ul><ul><li>definition of cultural knowledge (Spradley, 1980). </li></ul><ul><li>detailed investigation of patterns of social interaction (Gumperz, 1981). </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ Ethnographic Research”— Definitions (cont’d) <ul><li>Ethnographic research is: </li></ul><ul><li>essentially descriptive, a form of story telling (Walker, 1981). </li></ul><ul><li>the testing and development of theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). </li></ul><ul><li>one social research method, drawing on a wide range of sources of information (Hammersley and Atkinson, 1983). </li></ul>
  12. 12. “ Ethnographic Research”— Characteristics <ul><li>Ethnographic research : </li></ul><ul><li>looks at relationships within a system or culture. </li></ul><ul><li>explores native viewpoints of behavior in the natural settings. </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on understanding rather than prediction. </li></ul><ul><li>demands the researcher to develop a model of what occurred in the social settings. </li></ul><ul><li>requires the researcher to become the research instrument. </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ Symbolic Interactionism” in Ethnographic Research <ul><li>Symbolic Interactionism (Blumer, 1937) is: </li></ul><ul><li>a major social psychological perspective and </li></ul><ul><li>approach . </li></ul><ul><li>a reaction against behaviorist explanations of </li></ul><ul><li>human behavior . </li></ul><ul><li>a theory which seeks to explain human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>in terms of meanings . </li></ul>
  14. 14. “ Symbolic Interactionism” — Three Premises <ul><li>Blumer (1969) set out three premises : </li></ul><ul><li>Premise 1 : “Human beings act toward things on the </li></ul><ul><li>basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things.” </li></ul><ul><li>Premise 2 : “Meanings of things are derived from </li></ul><ul><li>the social interaction that one has with one’s fellows.” </li></ul><ul><li>Premise 3 : “Meanings are modified through an </li></ul><ul><li>interpretive process used by one dealing with the </li></ul><ul><li>things he/she encounters.” </li></ul>
  15. 15. “ Symbolic Interactionism” — An Ongoing and Dynamic Process <ul><li>Individuals Define things Interpretation Modify </li></ul><ul><li>uses and give ‘meanings’ and judgment meanings and </li></ul><ul><li>perspectives perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>through symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1. Dynamic process of Symbolic Interaction </li></ul>
  16. 16. “ Grounded Theory” in Ethnographic Research <ul><li>Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) is : </li></ul><ul><li>a qualitative research method adopted to develop </li></ul><ul><li>an inductively derived theory from the collected </li></ul><ul><li>field data ” (Strauss and Corbin, 1990:24). </li></ul><ul><li>a detailed grounding by systematically analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>data, using constant comparison as it is coded until </li></ul><ul><li>a theory results ( Glaser, 1978). </li></ul>
  17. 17. “ Grounded Theory”— Characteristics <ul><li>Grounded Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>processes work from data to theory . </li></ul><ul><li>■ D ata is conceptualized into categories and </li></ul><ul><li>integrated into a theory. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Three c oding procedures — open , axial, and </li></ul><ul><li>selective — are used. </li></ul><ul><li>■ Data is used to illustrate the evolving theory . </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ Grounded Theory”— Four Criteria <ul><li>1. Fit- the categories of the theory must fit the data. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Workability- a theory should be able to predict </li></ul><ul><li>what will happen and interpret what is happening. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Relevancy- the theory must allow core problems </li></ul><ul><li>and processes to emerge. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Modifiability- the theory must allow for emergent </li></ul><ul><li>data that qualify and modify the theory. </li></ul>
  19. 19. “ Constant Comparative Method” in Grounded Theory <ul><li>Constant Comparative Method : </li></ul><ul><li>together with theoretical sampling constitute the core of the grounded theory approach. </li></ul><ul><li>■ The goal of the method is to discern conceptual </li></ul><ul><li>similarities , to refine the discriminative power </li></ul><ul><li>of categories, and to discover patterns . </li></ul><ul><li>■ The cycle of comparison on ‘old” and ‘new” </li></ul><ul><li>material can be repeated several times . </li></ul>
  20. 20. “ Constant Comparative Method” — Four Stages <ul><li>Glaser and Strauss (1967) explained four stages of </li></ul><ul><li>the constant comparison method. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 : “Comparing incidents applicable to each </li></ul><ul><li>category” </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 : “Integrating categories and their properties” </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 : “Delimiting the theory” </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 : “Writing theory” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Major Categories for Classroom Observation <ul><li>Space: the physical place or places </li></ul><ul><li>Actor: the people involved </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: a set of related acts people do </li></ul><ul><li>Object: the physical things that are presented </li></ul><ul><li>Act: single actions that people do </li></ul><ul><li>Event: a set of related activities that people carry out </li></ul><ul><li>Time: the sequencing that takes place over time </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: the things people are trying to accomplish </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling: the emotions felt and expressed </li></ul>
  22. 22. A Useful Guidelines for Directing Observations <ul><li>What appears to be the significant issues that are being discussed? </li></ul><ul><li>What non-verbal communication is taking place? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is talking and who is listening? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the event take place? </li></ul><ul><li>When does the event take place? </li></ul><ul><li>How long does the event take? </li></ul><ul><li>How is time used in the event? </li></ul><ul><li>How are the individual elements of the event connected? </li></ul><ul><li>How are change and stability managed? </li></ul><ul><li>What rules govern the social organization of, and behaviour in, the event? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this event occurring, and occurring in the way that it is? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Field Note <ul><li>Date: Thursday, April 23, 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher participant: T-1 OB-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Time of Class: 5:30 PM </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Institution: A </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Class: Basic English Pronunciation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Example of Field Note of Classroom Observation Classroom Activities Researcher’s Comments --Did role-play—students were asked to write script and act them out. --Students were busy with their discussion and did it very intensively. --Some of the students used English and some used Chinese to discuss the material. --The teacher walked around the groups to provide help. --Students volunteered to role-play. ( Amazingly different from the traditional English class) --The teacher then corrected students‘ errors. /* The teacher frequently used reinforcement, including: “Very good” “I'm glad you said that” /* The teacher elicited questions based on student's responses. /* So far, I had been impressed by the teacher's use of techniques to involve every student. I found that there was almost no gap between the teacher and the students. /* The teacher's control of timing was perfect. The students seemed to pretty much engaged in answering questions and discussions.
  25. 25. Demographic Information Sheet for Teacher Informant <ul><li>Code (Teacher Participant) : </li></ul><ul><li>Gender : ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulated teaching experience in this institution : ___ (yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulated teaching experience in EFL/ESL : (yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Please indicate your participation in academic conferences and seminars. </li></ul><ul><li>Time participated </li></ul><ul><li>Names/ Titles of conferences/ seminars : </li></ul><ul><li>Please describe classroom/instructional evaluation in your institution </li></ul><ul><li>Please describe your academic research. </li></ul><ul><li>Conference paper </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ways of Categorizing Questions <ul><li>Descriptive questions </li></ul><ul><li>Experience questions </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour questions </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge questions </li></ul><ul><li>Construct-forming questions </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast questions(asking respondents to </li></ul><ul><li>contrast one thing with another) </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling questions </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory questions </li></ul><ul><li>Background questions </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic questions </li></ul>
  27. 27. Interview Questions for Teachers <ul><li>Would you describe and explain your philosophy in teaching English as a foreign language? </li></ul><ul><li>How much do you know about the educational goal of your department? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and explain the courses you are teaching at this institution. </li></ul><ul><li>Please describe you typical day at school? How do you plan your day? </li></ul><ul><li>Please describe your typical class? How do you plan your class? </li></ul><ul><li>Could you tell me about incidents, occasions, or situations you found teaching English rewarding? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Procedures That Can Be Followed When Phenomenological Analyzing Interview Data 3-1 <ul><li>Transcription </li></ul><ul><li>Bracketing and phenomenological reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to the interview for a sense of the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Delineating units of general meaning </li></ul>
  29. 29. Procedures That Can Be Followed When Phenomenological Analyzing Interview Data 3-2 <ul><li>Delineating units of meaning relevant to the research question </li></ul><ul><li>Training independent judges to verify the units of relevant meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating redundancies </li></ul><ul><li>Clustering units of relevant meaning </li></ul>
  30. 30. Procedures That Can Be Followed When Phenomenological Analyzing Interview Data 3-3 <ul><li>Determining themes from clusters of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a summary of each individual interview </li></ul><ul><li>Return to the participant with the summary and themes, conducting a second interview </li></ul><ul><li>Modifying themes and summary </li></ul>
  31. 31. Example of Coding and Labeling I Teacher Participants’ Philosophy in Teaching English Response A. Help students who really need help B. Look at problems that cause students’ learning difficulties C. Use many different approaches to teach English A. Create situations in which students wish to express themselves B. Provide tools for students with which they can express themselves C. Employ Communicative language teaching methodology D. Use Task-based teaching approach Make language learning enjoyable Teacher participant I II
  32. 32. Example of Coding and Labeling II Teacher Participants’ Philosophy in Teaching English Response A. When learning new words and new sentences. B. When it is convenient for me to have access to professional field. C. When I am able to communicate with foreigners. D. Being able to travel abroad. E. When I am able to find a job with good English after graduation. F. When my English ability is getting better. G. When I can understand ICRT. H. When I understand the target language culture. I. When I make more friends. J. I feel superior than others, when I have a good command of English. Students participant I, V, XI I I, II, IV, VII, VIII, X, XI, XIV I, VIII I III III III, VI, XII III IV
  33. 33. Data Sources Triangulation Classroom Observations Interviews Reflective Journals Figure 1 : Triangulation (cont.)
  34. 34. Figure 2 David Hawkins’Elements of Teaching (subject matter) I (teacher) THOU (learners) CONTEXT
  35. 35. Enhance Learners’ Writing proficiency Promote Learners’ Creativity Process Approach Model Writing Instructional Goals Teaching Approach Conceptual Framework for Teaching Figure 3 Example of “Constant Comparative Method”
  36. 36. External Factors School policy Enjoyable, relaxed learning environment Encourage English only environment Encourage volunteers Instruction Student Teacher Response Feedback Figure 4. Conceptual Model of Classroom Expertise Schemas Teaching experience Lesson plan Teaching enthusiasm Language competence Schemas Learning enthusiasm Internet Preview and review Interaction
  37. 37. Figure 5. Conceptual Map of A Classroom Technology Goal  Belief  Knowledge  Evaluation Goal  Belief  Knowledge  Evaluation ‧ Teachers ‧ Students ‧ Interaction ‧ Interaction Further learning Resource Output (feedback) Change & Remediation Input (Knowledge) Performance Further study Application
  38. 38. Figure 6. A conceptual map of the influence of cooperative learning on EFL low-achievers Get spontaneous help from high achiever through asking questions Build self-esteem Lower inhibition Arouse motivation Cooperative Learning Low Achievement Comprehensible input Achievement improvement
  39. 39. Figure 7. The Conceptual Map of the Interaction between Teacher’s talk and Student’s talk as a questioning strategy in Classroom Teacher’s Instructional Strategy Teacher’s Goal Students’ Learning Evaluation Teaching Efficiency Teacher’s Talk Students’ Talk
  40. 40. Figure 8. The conceptual map of teacher participant III’s interactive thought and decision
  41. 41. Figure 9. The conceptual map of teacher participant II’s interactive thoughts and decision
  42. 42. Figure 10. The conceptual map of teacher participant I’s interactive thoughts and decision
  43. 43. Conclusion 1. Underdeveloped ability 2. Vague conception in reference feedback 1. An expert reader’s mental map 2. A summary table 3. A scoring table 4. Feedback for reading comprehension test scaffolding 1. Guiding instruction 2. Trial section 3. The feedback tool 4. Independent application 1. Development of referential identification and resolution 2. Better awareness of reference
  44. 44. Development of a Model Teacher’s Mediation Student- Centered Activities Motivation Enhancement Learner Autonomy comprehensible input Figure 11. A cyclical approach to the sitcom-based instruction in a spoken English practice class A cyclical approach to learning activities Recurring Viewings The Friends
  45. 45. Figure 12. Teachers’ Perspectives of EFL Classroom Interaction -Teaching Empowerment Teachers’ Interactive Thoughts and Decisions Innovative Classroom Teachers’ and Students’ Classroom Behaviors Teaching Effectiveness Teaching Empowerment
  46. 46. Conclusion Preservice Teachers’ Belief Critical Reflection Past Learning Experiences Teacher Training Program English Remedial Teaching Practice Belief construction/ Reconstruction
  47. 47. The Golden Rules for Ethnographers <ul><li>Try not to study your own group </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to have an outside reader of your field notes and interview transcripts </li></ul><ul><li>Try not to design a study to prove something </li></ul><ul><li>Time in the field equals time in analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Always develop a model of what occurred in the study </li></ul><ul><li>Always look for negative evidence or points of tension and conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the trade-offs in ethnographic work </li></ul><ul><li>Try to keep an ethnographic journal. </li></ul>
  48. 48. THANK YOU!