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9722601 Lynn


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9722601 Lynn

  1. 1. The acquisition of a second language Research Writing and Publishing I     Shing-Yu Tsai Instructor: Pi Ying Hsu October 13 th , 2008
  2. 2. Wilmslow, N. G., (2000). The acquisition of a second language. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology , 4, 3-7. <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>About my research </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction Age as a factor <ul><ul><li>As with the mother tongue there seems to be no doubt that age is a factor in developing a second language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wilmslow, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction Critical Period <ul><ul><li>A first language can only be acquired during certain periods of life extending from early infancy to puberty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wilmslow, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction Studies of brain function <ul><ul><li>There will be many in advances in the knowledge of how the brain enables new skills to be acquire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Wilmslow, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The purpose of study <ul><ul><li>To address some important questions and set forth explicitly some viewpoints for looking at the effects of second language. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Research questions <ul><ul><li>Whether age would influence acquisition of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second language? </li></ul></ul>Based on the papers, it would affect acquisition of L2. The period of infancy to puberty is crucial.
  8. 8. Research questions <ul><ul><li>Are there different patterns of cerebral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activation associated with learning the subject’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>native language? </li></ul></ul>Yes, it is increase level of positron in the activate area of brain.
  9. 9. Research questions <ul><ul><li>Are there differences between bilingualism and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monolingual children to learn second language? </li></ul></ul>Yes, it is the relationships between the two languages and the effects of one language upon the other.
  10. 10. Literature Review <ul><ul><li>Children can acquire a vocabulary of a few hundred words of a foreign language before the age of seven years it will be easier to develop fluency and without an accent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Penfield, 1965) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Literature Review <ul><ul><li>When a native-language preference was established by the age of four months, no doubt using prosodic clues – the infants being exposed to sentence drawn from two phonologically close languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Bosch, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Literature Review <ul><ul><li>Acquiring a second language there is a similar gradual declined related to age with which children learn a second language, so that younger children do have this advantages over adults. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Johnson & Newport, 1989) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Literature Review <ul><ul><li>The possibility that maturational constraints may have different effects on the development of special subsystems within language, and they found that apart from maturational changes constraining the development of neural systems relevant for language. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Weber-Fox & Neville, 1996) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Literature Review <ul><ul><li>The evidence available does not support the suggestion that no aspect of this Universal Grammar is available; or that there is only partial access, but that it does support a full availability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Epstein & Flynn, 1996) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Literature Review <ul><ul><li>There were different patterns of cerebral activation associated with learning the subject's native language compared with the acquisition of a second language. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>( Perani, 1997) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Literature Review <ul><ul><li>The differences between bilingualism and monolingual children. They confirmed that the former did seem to have greater difficulties and to progress less quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( Crutchle, 1997) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Summary <ul><ul><li>Children learn a second language at an early age; they will acquire more much proficiency without the influence of first language. Not only for learning first language but also for the second language. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Summary <ul><ul><li>In brain organization will make learners how to acquire a second language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment is also the key to acquire a second language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surely it is much better to acquire a second language than learn it. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusion <ul><ul><li>A distinction between language acquisition and learning, the former being a subconscious process and the latter is a conscious process. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. About my research <ul><li>Topic: The age will influence one’s learning on speaking skill? </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: Students of third grade elementary school. </li></ul><ul><li>Students of first grade junior high school. </li></ul><ul><li>Students of first grade university. </li></ul><ul><li>Students on the graduate school.(Not English department) </li></ul><ul><li>Application: There are some theories on this research article that are </li></ul><ul><li>regarded to my research background. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Thank you for your attention!