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47 Alkaline Phosphatase (Alp) Clin Lab Navigator.Com


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47 Alkaline Phosphatase (Alp) Clin Lab Navigator.Com

  1. 1. Buy Our Book | Home | Contact Us | LinksTest Interpretations Transfusion Quality Control Utilization Method Evaluation Test Significant Change Q&A Blog Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)Acanthamoeba KeratitisAcetaminophenAcetylcholine Receptor Antibody Alkaline phosphatase refers to a family of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of phosphate estersAcetylsalicylic Acid at an alkaline pH. ALP is present (in decreasing order of abundance) in placenta, intestine,Acid Phosphatase kidney, bone and liver. In adults, more than 80% of serum ALP activity derives from liver andACTH bone. In late pregnancy, placental ALP is increased. In children and adolescents most serumACTH Rapid Stimulation Test ALP activity originates in osteoblasts and correlates with the rate of bone growth. The serumActivated Clotting Time half life is seven days.Activated Protein C ResistanceAdrenal Insufficiency Hepatitis B Screenings Diagnosed with Leukaemia?Aging Effect on Laboratory Values A blood test can diagnosis Hepatitis. Learn more University researched guide for patients andAlanine Aminotransferase now. families. Order HereAlbumin HepatitisInfo org www ipp-shr cqu edu au/bookshop/AlcoholAlcohol UrineAldosteroneAlkaline Phosphatase Several caveats must be remembered in interpreting ALP results.Allergic Bronchopulmonary AspergillosisAllergy Workup ALP levels should always be measured after fasting because enzyme levels increase asAlpha 1 Antitrypsin much as 30 U/L after food ingestion. Patients with blood group O and B who areAlpha Fetoprotein Maternal Serum secretors can have increased ALP levels after eating a fatty meal because of the releaseAlpha Fetoprotein Tumor Marker of intestinal enzyme.AML Blast Clearance African Americans have 10 to 15% higher ALP serum levels than Caucasians.Ammonia In children, ALP is increased up to 3 times the upper limit of normal and in pregnantAmniotic Fluid Optical Density patients it can be increased up to 2 times normal.Amylase ALP levels may double following bone fracture.Amyloidosis Smokers have 10% higher ALP levels than nonsmokers do.Amyloid Precursor Protein ALP levels fluctuate approximately 6% from week to week in a healthy individual.Anaerobe Bacterial CultureAngiotensin Converting Enzyme ALP is most useful in diagnosing cholestatic liver diseases. Bile duct obstruction results inAnion Gap increased synthesis of ALP by bile duct epithelial cells and release of ALP into the serum.Anthrax Alkaline phosphatase may be increased even if only a few small bile ducts are obstructed andAnti-Hu Antibody serum bilirubin is normal. Serum ALP often exceeds four times the upper limit of normal inAnti-IgA Antibody extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis. The most common causes of extrahepatic cholestasisAnti-beta-2-glycoprotein I Antibody are pancreatic cancer, common duct stones and strictures, and primary sclerosing cholangitis.Antibody Screen Intrahepatic cholestasis is usually due to primary biliary cirrhosis or drug reactionsAnticardiolipin Antibody (erythromycin, chlorpromazine, estrogens, and methyltestosterone). Patients with primaryAnticoagulants sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis initially have elevated ALP and normalAntidiuretic Hormone bilirubin levels.Antifactor Xa LMW HeparinAntimicrobial Susceptibility TestingAntineutrophil Cytoplasmic AntibodyAntinuclear AntibodiesAntiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Ads by GoogleAnti-Ri AntibodyAntistreptolysin OAntithrombin When the ALP level is increased disproportionately to the bilirubin level (e.g. a bilirubin < 1.0Arenavirus mg/dL and ALP > 1000 U/L), granulomatous or infiltrative diseases of the liver are likely.Arterial Blood Gas Possible diagnoses include sarcoidosis, fungal infections, tuberculosis, and lymphoma. ALPArterial Thrombosis Laboratory Testing levels are also increased in hyperthyroidism, cardiac failure, lymphoma, and hypernephroma.Aspartate AminotransferaseAtherogenic Dyslipidemia Lower ALP levels (< 3 times the upper limit of normal) are less specific for cholestatic liver disease and may be seen with hepatocellular diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. However, it is important to remember that incomplete obstruction by gallstones may produce mildly elevated ALP levels. Intrahepatic cholestasis secondary to anabolic steroids or birth control pills may cause mild increases in ALP. Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) can be measured to determine if elevated ALP levels are of liver origin; increased GGT indicates that ALP is most likely from the liver. Medications that have been reported to increase ALP include; allopurinol, anabolic steroids, captopril, carbamazepine, chlorpromazine, chlorpropamide, diltiazem, erythromycin, estrogens, flutamide, gold salts, methimazole, methyltestosterone, phenothiazines, phenylbutazone, phenytoin, quinidine, sulfonamides, tolazamide, tolbutamide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, and verapamil.
  2. 2. Sometimes it is useful to look at the relationship of ALP to bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels. Pathology ALP Bilirubin LD Intra or extrahepatic cholestasis Increased Increased Normal Focal benign cholestasis Increased Normal Normal Focal malignant cholestasis Increased Normal Increased Osteoblastic bone disease can also increase serum ALP. The most common bone disorders associated with elevated ALP are; Pagets disease, osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, osteogenic sarcoma, and bone metastases. Low alkaline phosphatase levels have been reported in patients with magnesium deficiency, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, hemolytic anemia, Wilsons Disease, post coronary bypass surgery, estrogen replacement therapy, and congenital hypophosphatasia. Blood transfusion causes transient decreases in ALP, due to chelation of cations by citrate. Reference range in adults is 40 - 125 IU/L (Vitros Analyzer). Specimen requirement is one SST tube of blood. If blood is collected in a citrate or EDTA tube, ALP activity will be almost totally inhibited due to the chelation of zinc and magnesium, which are necessary enzyme cofactors.Advertise | Biography | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | Site Map | Copyright © 2006 - 2009 by ClinLab Navigator, LLC.