Beyond RedApplications of Multispectral Remote Sensing              in Geoarchaeology                       Keith Challis ...
Beyond Red    •   Principles    •   Instruments and Methods    •   Fluvial Environments    •   Uplands    •   Future Poten...
PRINCIPLES
Beyond Red               (cc) XKCD http://xkcd.com/273/IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY O...
Beyond Red    • MS remote sensing relies on the fact that different earth      surface materials reflect the sun’s radiati...
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
INSTRUMENTS and METHODS
Beyond Red                                        CASI                                                                Beam...
Beyond Red      Band    Wavelength     Association        1      0.42-0.45       VIS blue        2      0.45-0.52    VIS b...
Beyond Red    • The various instruments offer differing      combinations of characteristics    • Fundamental variables ar...
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond Red    • Data not without problems and need      geometric correction, spectral correction      and georeferencingI...
Beyond Red    • Image processing techniques largely rely on      generation of multi-band colour composite      images    ...
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond Red    • Thermal ImageryIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November ...
Beyond Red    • Normalised Difference Vegetation Index          NDVI = (R-IR/R+IR)IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMP...
Beyond Red    • Principal Component AnalysisIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 3...
FLUVIAL ENVIRONMENTS
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond Red    • Spectral character of vegetation and soils    • Sub-surface variations in soil and sediment      character...
Beyond Red                                                      Trent Valley NottinghamshireIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION A...
Beyond Red    • ExampleIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond Red    • MS techniques enhance the record of      anthropogenic features    • Systematic use of MS remote sensing c...
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
UPLANDS
Beyond Red    • Significant differences in spectral characteristics      of vegetation, bare earth and exposed peat    • A...
Beyond Red   Alston Moor, Co DurhamIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th Novem...
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
FUTURE POTENTIAL
Beyond Red    • Very high resolution MS satellite imagery    WorldView 2                           World View 2: 26th May ...
Beyond Red    •   Ikonos                   1999 on; 4 band 3.4m/0.8m/$20km    •   Quickbird                2001 on; 4band ...
Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
Beyond Red                                The Remote Sensing ToolkitIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM   GEOLOG...
Beyond Red    Thanks    Keith Challis (Secondsiteresearch@gmail.com)    Secondsiteresearch.blogspot.com    With thanks to ...
Beyond Red http://www.slideshare.net/kdchallis/beyond-red-ms-remote-sensing-for-geoarchaeologyIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION...
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Beyond Red MS Remote Sensing for Geoarchaeology

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Multispectral remote sensing for geoarchaeological prospection; examples from UK alluvial and upland environments.

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Beyond Red MS Remote Sensing for Geoarchaeology

  1. 1. Beyond RedApplications of Multispectral Remote Sensing in Geoarchaeology Keith Challis IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  2. 2. Beyond Red • Principles • Instruments and Methods • Fluvial Environments • Uplands • Future PotentialIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  3. 3. PRINCIPLES
  4. 4. Beyond Red (cc) XKCD http://xkcd.com/273/IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  5. 5. Beyond Red • MS remote sensing relies on the fact that different earth surface materials reflect the sun’s radiation to a differing degree across the electro-magnetic spectrum • Differential reflectance is enhanced in the infrared portion of the spectrum, especially for vegetation • MS instruments are passive sensors that detect and record the sun’s reflected energy simultaneously in a number of discrete spectral bands • Image processing methods allow the discrimination of different surface materials and properties by analysis of differential reflection across several spectral bandsIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  6. 6. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  7. 7. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  8. 8. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  9. 9. INSTRUMENTS and METHODS
  10. 10. Beyond Red CASI Beam Splitter R G B IR Daedalus ATM EagleIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  11. 11. Beyond Red Band Wavelength Association 1 0.42-0.45 VIS blue 2 0.45-0.52 VIS blue-green 3 0.52-0.60 VIS green 4 0.60-0.62 VIS red 5 0.63-0.69 VIS red 6 0.69-0.75 NIR 7 0.76-0.90 NIR 8 0.91-1.05 NIR 9 1.55-1.75 SWIR 10 2.08-2.35 SWIR 11 8.50-13.00 TIR 12 8.50-13.00 TIRIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  12. 12. Beyond Red • The various instruments offer differing combinations of characteristics • Fundamental variables are the spectral resolution (bands and band width), spatial resolution (footprint of one pixel on ground) and radiometric resolution (bits per pixel) • Instrument design is usually a trade off between these threeIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  13. 13. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  14. 14. Beyond Red • Data not without problems and need geometric correction, spectral correction and georeferencingIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  15. 15. Beyond Red • Image processing techniques largely rely on generation of multi-band colour composite images • Various ratio and matrix based comparisons of reflectance across spectral bands • Simplification of multivariate data to reduce redundancy using statistical techniques such as PCAIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  16. 16. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  17. 17. Beyond Red • Thermal ImageryIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  18. 18. Beyond Red • Normalised Difference Vegetation Index NDVI = (R-IR/R+IR)IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  19. 19. Beyond Red • Principal Component AnalysisIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  20. 20. FLUVIAL ENVIRONMENTS
  21. 21. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  22. 22. Beyond Red • Spectral character of vegetation and soils • Sub-surface variations in soil and sediment character affect overlying vegetation • Spectral properties of bare earth vary by sediment • Soil and sediment moisture affect thermal propertiesIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  23. 23. Beyond Red Trent Valley NottinghamshireIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  24. 24. Beyond Red • ExampleIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  25. 25. Beyond Red • MS techniques enhance the record of anthropogenic features • Systematic use of MS remote sensing can enhance mapping of floodplain and terrace architecture • Systematic, GIS-based digital mapping informing prediction of preservation potential, burial environment, etc.IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  26. 26. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  27. 27. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  28. 28. UPLANDS
  29. 29. Beyond Red • Significant differences in spectral characteristics of vegetation, bare earth and exposed peat • Automatic mapping of erosion • Change detectionIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  30. 30. Beyond Red Alston Moor, Co DurhamIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  31. 31. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  32. 32. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  33. 33. FUTURE POTENTIAL
  34. 34. Beyond Red • Very high resolution MS satellite imagery WorldView 2 World View 2: 26th May 2012IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  35. 35. Beyond Red • Ikonos 1999 on; 4 band 3.4m/0.8m/$20km • Quickbird 2001 on; 4band 2.4m/0.6m/$20 • Worldview 1 2007 on; 1 band 0.5m/$20 • Worldview 2 2009 on 8 band 1.8m/0.46m/$28 • GeoEye 1 2009 on; 4 band 1.65m/0.41m/$25 • GeoEye 2 2013 on; 4 band 1.36m/0.34m/$??IRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  36. 36. Beyond RedIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  37. 37. Beyond Red The Remote Sensing ToolkitIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  38. 38. Beyond Red Thanks Keith Challis (Secondsiteresearch@gmail.com) Secondsiteresearch.blogspot.com With thanks to Mark Kincey (m.e.kincey@durham.ac.uk) Trent Valley and Alston Moor Research Funded by English HeritageIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012
  39. 39. Beyond Red http://www.slideshare.net/kdchallis/beyond-red-ms-remote-sensing-for-geoarchaeologyIRISH QUATERNARY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRELAND 30th November 2012

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