Literature:The finer points of reading and writing<br />By Kat Dankel<br />
Literature: What’s the point?<br />Literature is:<br />Composition that tells a story, dramatizes a situation, expresses e...
Genres<br />There are four genres of literature:<br />Prose fiction<br />Myths, parables, romances, novels, short stories<...
How to Read Literature<br />• First reading<br />	Determine what is happening, where, what, who is<br />	involved, major c...
Writing a Summary<br />Retell the highlights so reader will know main sections<br />Only essential details<br />Must be an...
Elements of Fiction<br />Essence of fiction = narration (the telling)<br />Elements of fiction = Realism and Premise<br />...
Plot and Structure<br />Plot = reflection of motivation and causation<br />	No plot = The king died and then the queen die...
Structure of Fiction<br />Structure defines the layout of the work.<br />Exposition               Complication         Cri...
Characters in Fiction<br />Character = verbal representation of a human being<br />Rounded = lifelike, dynamic, reader can...
Character Types in Harry Potter<br />Harry Potter<br />         The Protagonist<br />Voldemort<br />         The Antagonis...
Character Types in Harry Potter<br />Ron and Hermione<br />  Rounded Characters<br />Lee Jordan<br />        Flat Characte...
Character Types in Harry Potter<br />LuciusMalfoy<br />Stock (Deatheaters)<br />Cho Chang<br />Stock (Ravenclaws)<br />
Point of View<br />Refers to speaker, narrator, persona or voice created by the author to tell the story<br />Point of vie...
Setting<br />Setting = a work’s natural, manufactured, political, cultural and temporal environment, including everything ...
Tone and Style<br />Tone = methods by which writers and speakers reveal attitudes or feelings<br />Style = ways in which w...
Tone and Style<br />Language may be:<br />	Specific = images<br />	General = broad classes<br />Concrete = qualities of im...
Symbolism and Allegory<br />Symbolism and allegory are modes that expand meaning<br />Symbol creates a direct, meaningful ...
Symbolism and Allegory<br />Allegory is a symbol = complete and self-sufficient narrative<br />Fable = stories about anima...
Examples of Symbolism and Allegory<br />Allegory<br />Young Goodman Brown<br />Nathaniel Hawthorne is known for allegory.<...
Examples of Symbolism and Allegory<br />Parable<br />Samson and Delilah<br />Myth<br />Pandora’s Box<br />
Examples ofSymbolism and Allegory<br />Allusion<br />In The Matrix Reloaded, wherein Morpheus states, "I have dreamed a dr...
Idea or Theme<br />Idea = results of general and abstract thinking<br />In literature, ideas relate to meaning, interpreta...
Sources<br />Let There Be Symbolism.Tapestry, 2007. Video Segment.30 April 2010.<br />   <http://www.discoveryeducation.co...
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Literaturepowerpoint2

  1. 1. Literature:The finer points of reading and writing<br />By Kat Dankel<br />
  2. 2. Literature: What’s the point?<br />Literature is:<br />Composition that tells a story, dramatizes a situation, expresses emotions, analyzes and advocates ideas<br />Helps us grow personally and intellectually<br />Provides an objective base for knowledge and understanding<br />Shapes our goals and values by clarifying our own identities, both positively and negatively<br />
  3. 3. Genres<br />There are four genres of literature:<br />Prose fiction<br />Myths, parables, romances, novels, short stories<br />Poetry<br />Open form and closed form<br /> Relies on imagery, figurative language, sound<br />Drama<br />Made up of dialogue and set direction<br /> Designed to be performed<br />Nonfiction prose<br />News reports, feature articles, essays, editorials,<br /> Textbooks, historical and biographical works<br />
  4. 4. How to Read Literature<br />• First reading<br /> Determine what is happening, where, what, who is<br /> involved, major characters<br />Make a record of your reactions and responses<br /> Describe characterizations, events, techniques and ideas<br />• Second reading<br /> Trace developing patterns<br />Write expanded notes about characters, situations, actions<br />Write paragraph describing your reactions and thoughts<br /> Write down questions that arise as you read (in the margins)<br />
  5. 5. Writing a Summary<br />Retell the highlights so reader will know main sections<br />Only essential details<br />Must be an original essay, written in your own words<br />Be sure to introduce the title and author<br />Avoid judgments<br />Use present tense when retelling a story<br />
  6. 6. Elements of Fiction<br />Essence of fiction = narration (the telling)<br />Elements of fiction = Realism and Premise<br />Realism: Must be compelling enough that the reader can “suspend disbelief”<br /> Premise: Something given by which you can judge the realism, aka ground rules<br />Sources of elements<br /> Character, plot, structure, theme, symbolism, style, point of view, tone, irony<br />
  7. 7. Plot and Structure<br />Plot = reflection of motivation and causation<br /> No plot = The king died and then the queen died.<br /> Plot = The king died, and then the queen died of grief.<br />Conflict = controlling impulse in a connected pattern of causes and effects<br />Opposition of two or more people (e.g., hatred, envy,<br /> anger, argument, avoidance, gossip, lies, fighting, etc.)<br />Dilemma = Conflict within or for one person<br /> Conflict is a major element of plot because it arouses<br /> curiosity, causes doubt, creates tension, produces interest<br />No tension = no interest<br />
  8. 8. Structure of Fiction<br />Structure defines the layout of the work.<br />Exposition Complication Crisis Climax Resolution<br />
  9. 9. Characters in Fiction<br />Character = verbal representation of a human being<br />Rounded = lifelike, dynamic, reader can predict future behavior because of an understanding of the personality<br />Protagonist = the hero or heroine, main person in the story<br /> Antagonist = the person causing the conflict, in opposition to the protagonist, the obstacle, etc.<br /> Flat = no growth, static<br /> Stock = representative of a group or class (stereotypical)<br />Characters disclosed through<br /> Actions<br /> Descriptions, both personal and environmental<br /> Dramatic statements and thoughts<br />Statements by other characters<br />Statements by the author speaking as storyteller, or observer<br />* Characters need to be probable or plausible<br />
  10. 10. Character Types in Harry Potter<br />Harry Potter<br /> The Protagonist<br />Voldemort<br /> The Antagonist<br />
  11. 11. Character Types in Harry Potter<br />Ron and Hermione<br /> Rounded Characters<br />Lee Jordan<br /> Flat Character<br />
  12. 12. Character Types in Harry Potter<br />LuciusMalfoy<br />Stock (Deatheaters)<br />Cho Chang<br />Stock (Ravenclaws)<br />
  13. 13. Point of View<br />Refers to speaker, narrator, persona or voice created by the author to tell the story<br />Point of view depends on two factors:<br /> Physical situation of the narrator as an observer<br />Speaker’s intellectual and emotional position<br />First person = I, we<br />Second person = You (uncommon)<br />Third person = He, she, they (most common)<br />Point of view may be:<br /> Dramatic/objective = strictly reporting<br />Omniscient = all-knowing<br />Limited omniscient = some insight<br />
  14. 14. Setting<br />Setting = a work’s natural, manufactured, political, cultural and temporal environment, including everything that characters know and own (place, time, objects)<br />Major purpose = to establish realism and to organize a story<br />Setting helps create atmosphere or mood<br />Setting may reinforce characters and theme, in order to establish expectations that are the opposite of what occurs = irony<br />
  15. 15. Tone and Style<br />Tone = methods by which writers and speakers reveal attitudes or feelings<br />Style = ways in which writers assemble words to tell the story, to develop an argument, dramatize the play, compose the poem<br />Choice of words in the service of content<br />Essential aspect of style is diction<br /> Formal = standard or elegant words<br /> Neutral = everyday standard vocabulary<br />Informal = colloquial, substandard language, slang<br />
  16. 16. Tone and Style<br />Language may be:<br /> Specific = images<br /> General = broad classes<br />Concrete = qualities of immediate perception<br />Abstract = broader, less palpable qualities<br />Denotation = word meanings<br />Connotation = word suggestions<br />Verbal irony = contradictory statements<br /> One thing said, opposite is meant<br />Irony = satire, parody, sarcasm, double entendre<br /> Understatement = does not fully describe the importance of a situation – deliberately<br />Hyperbole (overstatement) = words far in excess of the situation<br />
  17. 17. Symbolism and Allegory<br />Symbolism and allegory are modes that expand meaning<br />Symbol creates a direct, meaningful equation between:<br /> A specific object, scene, character, or action<br />Ideas, values, persons or ways of life<br />Symbols may be:<br /> Cultural (universal) = known by most literate people (e.g., white dove, color black)<br />Contextual (authorial) = private, created by the author<br />
  18. 18. Symbolism and Allegory<br />Allegory is a symbol = complete and self-sufficient narrative<br />Fable = stories about animals that possess human traits<br />Parable = allegory with moral or religious bent<br />Myth = story that embodies and codifies religious,<br /> philosophical and cultural values of the civilization in which it is composed<br />Allusion = the use of other culturally well-known works from the Bible, Greek and Roman mythology, famous art, etc.<br />
  19. 19. Examples of Symbolism and Allegory<br />Allegory<br />Young Goodman Brown<br />Nathaniel Hawthorne is known for allegory.<br />Fable<br />Aesop’s Fables<br />Tortoise and the Hare<br />
  20. 20. Examples of Symbolism and Allegory<br />Parable<br />Samson and Delilah<br />Myth<br />Pandora’s Box<br />
  21. 21. Examples ofSymbolism and Allegory<br />Allusion<br />In The Matrix Reloaded, wherein Morpheus states, "I have dreamed a dream, but now that dream is gone from me (sic)", alludes to a quote by King Nebuchadnezzar from Daniel 2:3 of the Old Testament. This is known as a religious allusion.<br /> O Brother, Where Art Thou is an allusion to the Odyssey. <br />
  22. 22. Idea or Theme<br />Idea = results of general and abstract thinking<br />In literature, ideas relate to meaning, interpretation, explanation and significance<br />Literature embodies values along with ideas<br />Ideas are vital to an understanding and appreciation of literature<br />Ideas are not as obvious as character or setting. It is important to consider the meaning of what you’ve read and then develop an explanatory and comprehensive assertion.<br />Theme can be found in any of these:<br />Direct statements by the authorial voice<br />Direct statements by a first-person speaker<br />Dramatic statements by characters<br />Figurative language, characters who stand for ideas<br />The work itself<br />
  23. 23. Sources<br />Let There Be Symbolism.Tapestry, 2007. Video Segment.30 April 2010.<br />   <http://www.discoveryeducation.com/>. <br />Roberts, Edgar V., and Henry E. Jacobs. Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing. 8th ed. Prentice Hall, 2006. Print.<br />All images courtesy of Google Images<br />

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