CPD in HE - Research project information


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A presentation given at the University of LIncoln Symposium July 2007 about a research project in progress.

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CPD in HE - Research project information

  1. 1. Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education Challenges and Opportunities Karin Crawford University of Lincoln [email_address] http://webpages.lincoln.ac.uk/kcrawford
  2. 2. Overview of presentation <ul><li>Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Higher Education (HE) </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A little about me and my interest in CPD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The national and local context of CPD in HE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>My ‘desk research’ and initial investigations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges and tensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities and good practice </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>About me </li></ul><ul><li>An academic; a researcher; a teaching fellow; a student </li></ul><ul><li>Personal journey from professional and managerial experience to academia </li></ul><ul><li>CPD and lifelong learning – earlier research </li></ul><ul><li>Current research project </li></ul><ul><li>Developing an understanding of the influences on the CPD practices of academics in HE </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-case study - qualitative research </li></ul><ul><li>Set in context of change, competing demands and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Offers a voice for academics and staff developers </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to influence approaches to CPD in institutions </li></ul>
  4. 4. National context of CPD in HE <ul><li>A focus on CPD and the enhancement of the quality of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in HE (HEA 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>The Higher Education Academy Professional Recognition Scheme </li></ul>‘… good-quality teaching for everyone…(by)…staff that are trained to teach and continue to develop professionally…’ (DfES 2003: 49)
  5. 5. National context of CPD in HE /continued. . . <ul><li>New ‘Professional Standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector’ </li></ul><ul><li>The 14-19 agenda (DfES 2005) and the Leitch Review (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Quality audit processes – Quality Assurance Agency ( www.qaa.ac.uk ) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education Funding Council (HEFCE) supporting ‘institutions in enhancing the quality of their learning and teaching’ ( www.hefce.ac.uk ) </li></ul>‘ Reflection and evaluation of their own practice and their continuing professional development as teachers’ (LLUK 2007: 3)
  6. 6. Local context of CPD in HE <ul><li>Historical institutional context </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Lincoln mission </li></ul><ul><li>Policies and strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A range of partnerships – meeting a range of needs and demands </li></ul>‘ To be recognised as a university of quality and distinction’
  7. 7. Challenges and tensions <ul><li>Contradictions; ‘dualisms’; ‘fault lines’ (Clegg 2003: 37) </li></ul><ul><li>Dual role of HE as providers and consumers </li></ul><ul><li>What constitutes CPD? </li></ul><ul><li>Academic identity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching-Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competing loyalties and priorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Complexity of academic role </li></ul><ul><li>The rhetoric and the reality </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dual role of HE (with regard to CPD) <ul><li>HE as established providers of CPD for others …….BUT </li></ul><ul><li>… HE is less developed in provision of CPD for own staff (Clegg 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff development organised very differently in different institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues of status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There is seemingly no one way of facilitating or providing CPD in HE </li></ul><ul><li>Complex range of approaches; cultures; priorities; beliefs; and actions – impacting on staff developers, institutions and individual academics </li></ul>
  9. 9. What constitutes CPD? <ul><li>Formal or informal learning? The iceberg analogy - ‘ not all professional knowings are explicit ’ (Knight 2006: 31) </li></ul><ul><li>As well as accredited courses - CPD can be seen as arising from personal scholarship and normal working activities (Becher 1999, Clegg 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>How will arguably increasing external demands, e.g. implementation of the standards frameworks impact on this debate? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Academic identity – ‘academic tribes’ <ul><li>Research – Teaching Nexus </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally perceived disproportionate status </li></ul><ul><li>Professional standards focus on teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>University of Lincoln </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drive to embed research informed teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revised structures to enhance the status of quality teaching and learning in the institution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant implications for CPD – for institutions and individuals </li></ul>‘’ . . .two academic tribes – those who prioritize research within their career, and those who tend to prioritize teaching’ (Ramsden cited in Trigwell and Shale 2004: 523)
  11. 11. Academic identity – loyalties and priorities <ul><li>Academics situated in many ‘communities of practice’ (Wenger 1998) therefore potentially different . . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discourses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understandings of CPD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPD requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>professional histories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approaches to teaching and learning </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The academic role ‘… the academic role is in flux’ (Blackmore and Blackwell 2003: 19) <ul><li>Traditional role of teaching, researching and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Changing expectations – a wider range of tasks and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Subject ‘expert’? Teaching and learning ‘expert’ Both? Something else? </li></ul><ul><li>Many different forms of ‘tenure’ – part-time, hourly, ‘guest’, ‘visiting’… </li></ul><ul><li>Changing meaning of the term ‘academic’ - different meanings across different institutions and functions </li></ul>
  13. 13. CPD – whose goals and needs? <ul><li>Relationship between needs of the institution and needs of the academic; </li></ul><ul><li>Tension in whose goals are to be met and who is responsible; </li></ul><ul><li>Potential disparity between policy rhetoric and policy achievement (Field 2002); </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of consensus on meaning and scope of CPD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the core tension in this relationship is that between those needs for the continuity of the work practice and individuals’ needs to realise their personal or vocational goals’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Billett 2002: 56) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. A local investigation <ul><li>Very small scale, early ‘test-bed’ </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose – to explore understandings of CPD and perceived links to teaching quality enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Respondent profile: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fourteen respondents – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 departments, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>academics, learning resources, one person was a manager, individuals working in relevant central functions supporting teaching and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>57% (8) male – 43% (6) female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average years working in HE = 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average years at University of Lincoln = 8 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Summary of findings – defining CPD CPD in HE is ‘ subject development, updating, scholarly activity, and research and/or pedagogical development updating, innovation, and/or development opportunities for management/leadership ’ (Academic, female) CPD in HE is ‘in a constantly changing environment, the process whereby you ensure that the skills and knowledge required to teach your subject and support student learning are up to date ‘ (Staff member in a role that supports teaching and learning (male) ‘ different approaches and understanding across faculty and departments, therefore different arrangements’ (Academic female)
  16. 16. Summary of findings – whose goals and needs? CPD in HE is ‘ support in making progress in line with the objectives of the university, faculty, department and personal aspirations for career development’’ (Academic manager, male) ‘ ..addressing the needs of the individual member of staff’ (Academic male) ‘… advancing one’s own work’ (Academic, male)
  17. 17. Summary of findings – content and focus of CPD
  18. 18. Opportunities <ul><li>New policies, structures and strategies at the University of Lincoln </li></ul><ul><li>The opportunity to ‘take ownership’ as academics drive ‘a combination of top-down and bottom-up strategies…’ (Zuber-Skerritt 1992: 192 italics in original). </li></ul><ul><li>Considering how to involve the students of the university in CPD for staff (Leeds Met. University) </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge and value difference across disciplines – but share good practice – ‘mainstream’ CPD </li></ul>
  19. 19. Opportunities <ul><li>Explore and learn from the practices of other institutions (nationally and internationally) </li></ul><ul><li>A shift to a focus on learning – then being inclusive across the institution – everyone involved in student learning working together on common projects (Clegg 2003) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Presentation Summary <ul><li>Challenges and opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection on own practices </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for debate </li></ul>‘ .. problematising our conceptions of continuing professional development can open up space for debate’ (Clegg 2003: 37)
  21. 21. For any further information – visit my web pages at http://webpages.lincoln.ac.uk/kcrawford or email me [email_address] Thank you for listening !
  22. 22. References <ul><li>Becher, T. (1999) Professional Practices: Commitment and capability in a changing environment New Jersey: Transaction Publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Billett, S. R. (2002) ‘Critiquing workplace learning discourses: Participation and continuity at work’ Studies in the Education of Adults 34 (1) 56-67 </li></ul><ul><li>Blackwell, R. and Blackmore, P. (2003) ‘Rethinking strategic staff development’ in R. Blackwell and P. Blackmore (Eds) Towards Strategic Staff Development in Higher Education’ pp3-15 </li></ul><ul><li>Clegg, S. (2003) ‘Problematising Ourselves: Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education’ International Journal for Academic Development Vol 8, No. 1/2 pp.37-50 </li></ul><ul><li>Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2003) The future of higher education The Stationery Office </li></ul><ul><li>Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2005) 14-19 Education and Skills Nottingham: DfES publications </li></ul><ul><li>Field, J (2002) ‘Governing the ungovernable: why lifelong learning policies promise so much yet deliver so little’ in R. Edwards, N. Miller, N. Small and A. Tait (Eds) Supporting Lifelong Learning Volume 3, Making Policy Work . London: Routledge </li></ul>
  23. 23. References Continued/…. <ul><li>Higher Education Academy (HEA) (2006) The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education www.heacademy.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Knight, P. (2006) ‘Quality Enhancement and Educational Professional Development’ Quality in Higher Education Vol 12 (1) p.29-40 </li></ul><ul><li>Leitch, S. (2006) Leitch Review of skills – Prosperity for All in the Global Economy: World Class Skills Norwich: HMSO </li></ul><ul><li>LLUK (2007) New overarching professional standards for teachers, tutors and trainers in the lifelong learning sector www.lifelonglearninguk.org </li></ul><ul><li>Trigwell, K. and Shale, S. (2004) ‘Student learning and the scholarship of university teaching’ Studies in Higher Education Vol 29, No.4. pp524-525 </li></ul><ul><li>Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identify Cambridge: Cambridge University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Zuber-Skerritt, O. (1992) Professional Development in Higher Education London: Kogan Page </li></ul>