2.04: Political events, issues, and personalities that contributed to sectionalism/nationalism CHAPTER 3 (pages 94-131)
After 1812James Monroe elected 1816 and 1820 in landslides (D-R)VP: John Quincy Adams (JA’s son)Nationalism keeps growingPeriod known as the “Era of Good Feelings”
Monroe as PrezGoal: create national economy (govt policies support national growth/power) Once D-R had been afraid of strong national govt… Now they’ve changed their minds!Henry Clay becomes the man with the plan, AKA “American System”
Monroe as PrezClay’s American System:1. protective tariffs: protect US businesses from foreign competition by raising the cost of imported goods2. New roads/canals: improve transportation between the east coast and west3. national bank: new system needed to protect money supply
Monroe as PrezJohn Marshall heads SC, supports natl govt through M v. M & other SC decisions:McCulloch v. Maryland (1819): Congress has implied powers (create a National Bank), fed law superior to state lawGibbons v. Ogden (1824): only Fed Govt has power to regulate interstate commerce
Monroe as PrezPanic of 1819: economic downturnWorkers lose jobs, demand down for grain/cotton, farmers in debt, property lost to foreclosureAdams-Onis Treaty of 1821: Spain sells Florida to U.S.Monroe Doctrine, 1823:Monroe warns Europe to stay out of the Americas
Election of 18244-way D-R race:1. John Quincy Adams (JQA/former VP)2. Crawford (GA)3. Andrew Jackson (war hero – New Orleans)4. Henry Clay (“American system,” War Hawk)Jackson wins more popular votes & electoral votes than JQA, but DOESN’T HAVE A MAJORITY
Election of 1824Clay decides to support Adams & transfer votes… JQA becomes 6th Prez (1825-1829)Adams makes Clay his Secretary of State, supports “American System” Jackson is angry, calls this a “Corrupt Bargain” (illegal deal)
Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson furious that he’d been robbed in 1824, runs again in 1828AJ wins election as a Democrat (no longer D-R!)VP John Calhoun (SC)Rose up from poor beginning, didn’t trust the richSupported by regular Americans/“plain folk”/common menUsed the spoils system (gave jobs to his friends/party followers)
Voting Trends – 1800sFewer states require property ownership to be able to vote (only have to pay taxes)More states have universal male suffrage (if you’re a white man, you can vote)More voter participation (party conventions open to public, voters choose electors, parades, rallies…)
Jackson as Prez Protective tariffs part of “American System”North okay with tariffs, South dislikes tariffs (dependent on foreign trade)“Tariff of Abominations” passed 1828. Last act of JQA as Prez, leads to defeat, Jackson pressured to get rid of tariff ASAP.
Jackson as PrezJackson’s VP, Calhoun, opposes tariff.Calhoun writes SC Exposition and Protest – protests tax, calls on southern states to nullify tariff.Nullification: states could reject any federal law they thought unconstitutional.
Jackson as Prez Another tariff passed in 1832… SC legislature rejects tariff: AKA Nullification CrisisSC threatens to secede (leave the union)Jackson supports state rights, but not if the country would fall apart… threatens to send in troops Solution: Clay writes compromise, CRISIS OVER
Jackson as Prez Proposal: Second Natl BankOpponents (Jackson & Dems): dangerous/corrupt/ favors rich investorsSupporters: (Clay/Whig Party) economy will only grow with regulated currency (paper money w/ stable value)Jackson vetoes 2nd Natl Bank!Whig Party created to oppose Jackson, want strong national economy
Election of 1832 Jackson (D) v. Henry Clay (W) Jackson wins in landslide, takes on Natl BankWithdraws Fed $ from Natl Bank, puts it into different state banks AKA “Pet Banks”2nd Natl Bank failsWhig Party attacks Jackson, calls him “King Andrew the First”
Election of 1836 Martin Van Buren elected (Dem & Jackson’s fav)Panic of 1837:Depression started by Jackson’s decision to stop accepting paper $ for purchase of federal landLand value drops, banks/businesses bankrupt, etc.
Election of 1840 Whigs run against the depressionWilliam Henry Harrison elected (war hero/Whig).Harrison dies 1 month into office, replaced by John Tyler (rejects Whig policies once in power)