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The Science Behind Engaging Students in Class

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The Science
Behind Engaging
Students in Class


              Kevin A. Clauson, PharmD

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Which College are you
      representing today?
1. Arts and Sciences
2. Business
   Administration
3. Education and
   Hum...

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Which best describes your
formal training on how to teach?
1. Modeling based on
   observing professors
2. Periodic facult...

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The Science Behind Engaging Students in Class

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This is the expanded version of 'How to Fight Lecturalgia'. The enhancements from the peer-reviewed literature and science behind aspects of visual design were added in response to feedback after presenting the former version. This was presented as the keynote of Faculty Development at the University of Louisiana - Monroe.

This is the expanded version of 'How to Fight Lecturalgia'. The enhancements from the peer-reviewed literature and science behind aspects of visual design were added in response to feedback after presenting the former version. This was presented as the keynote of Faculty Development at the University of Louisiana - Monroe.

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The Science Behind Engaging Students in Class

  1. 1. The Science Behind Engaging Students in Class Kevin A. Clauson, PharmD
  2. 2. Which College are you representing today? 1. Arts and Sciences 2. Business Administration 3. Education and Human Development 4. Health Sciences 5. Pharmacy 6. Graduate Studies
  3. 3. Which best describes your formal training on how to teach? 1. Modeling based on observing professors 2. Periodic faculty development after becoming a teacher 3. Teaching certificate/track in residency/postdoc 4. Education degree 5. Other
  4. 4. What best describes your use of an audience response system? 0% 1. I have never considered using clickers in my class 0% 2. I have considered clickers, but never tried them in class 0% 3. I use clickers sometimes in my classes 4. I use clickers frequently in my classes 0% 5. I should probably be teaching YOU 0% about clickers
  5. 5. Objectives 1. Discuss underlying causes and treatments for lecturalgia 2. Discuss communication and visual design concepts including dual channels, split attention effect, and cognitive load 3. Explore the benefits and hurdles with an audience response system (ARS) 4. Formulate a plan to increase student interaction and engagement with ARS
  6. 6. What is Lecturalgia? 1. Endangered species of microplankton 2. Type of nail fungus 3. Word from Greek for „painful lecture‟ 4. Word I just made up
  7. 7. Causes of lecturalgia Med Educ 2001;35(12):1135-42.
  8. 8. Poor organization
  9. 9. The Craft of Scientific Presentations
  10. 10. Poor judgment
  11. 11. Poor delivery
  12. 12. Pipeline (unidirectional) Beyond Bullet Points, 2008.
  13. 13. Pipeline No learning Fragmented Meaningful learning learning Beyond Bullet Points, 2008.
  14. 14. “My Time” vs “Our Time”
  15. 15. Be flexible in your approach
  16. 16. Avoid educational constipation
  17. 17. Which type of memory has the most limited capacity? 1. Sensory 2. Working 3. Long-term
  18. 18. Three Types of Memory Sensory Working Long-term Psychol Rev 1956;63(2):81-97. Nat Rev Neurosci 2003;4(10):829-39.
  19. 19. Three Types of Memory Sensory Working Long-term Psychol Rev 1956;63(2):81-97. Nat Rev Neurosci 2003;4(10):829-39.
  20. 20. Mental processing Multimedia Learning, 2009.
  21. 21. Step 1 Put words into auditory working memory and images into visual working memory Comput Educ 2003;41:77-86.
  22. 22. Step 2 Organize information separately in auditory and visual memory Comput Educ 2003;41:77-86.
  23. 23. Integrate representations with prior knowledge Step 3 Comput Educ 2003;41:77-86.
  24. 24. Dual Coding Visual Channel Audio Channel Mind and Its Evolution, 2007.
  25. 25. Lack of channel synchronicity
  26. 26. Lack of channel synchronicity Split attention effect
  27. 27. Lack of channel synchronicity Split attention effect Increased cognitive load
  28. 28. We can speak at ~ 125 words per minute (WPM), but we read at: 1. 25 WPM. 2. 125 WPM. 3. 150 WPM. 4. 200 WPM. 5. >250 WPM.
  29. 29. Putting all of the text on the screen of what you will say and then essentially reading that text is the surest way to induce the redundancy effect which basically means you are presenting the same information at the same time via both visual and audio channels so you force the working memory of the students to work twice as hard to reconcile those two sources of information leading to cognitive overload which ultimately impairs learning J Educ Psych 2001;93(1):187-98.
  30. 30. Perfect storm created that reduces learning Multimedia Learning, 2009.
  31. 31. The perfect marriage of audio and visual can enhance conceptual recall Cognitive Load, 2010.
  32. 32. However, slides containing text with unrelated or visually discordant images could negatively affect learning J Am Soc Info Sci 1996;47:437-48.
  33. 33. Pastry chefs: a brief history (maybe if the topic was pasty chefs… or Vitamin D deficiency)
  34. 34. When considering lecture delivery and its visuals…
  35. 35. Design. Do Not Decorate.
  36. 36. How many slides should you have for a 60 minute lecture? 1. 15 0% 2. 45 3. 60 4. 75 5. Other 15 45 60 75 Other
  37. 37. Symptoms of lecturalgia to watch for…
  38. 38. Tinnitus
  39. 39. Loss of consciousness
  40. 40. Suicidal ideation
  41. 41. And of course… texting
  42. 42. How Do We Fight Lecturalgia? Revista de Informatica Aplicada 2009;5(1):51-60.
  43. 43. Solutions to treat lecturalgia are not always clear BMC Med Educ 2003;3:12.
  44. 44. Gamble that what you‟ve always done still works?
  45. 45. Sometimes it‟s best to dive right in
  46. 46. ARS to fight lecturalgia Proceedings 2008 (4709-4717).
  47. 47. Transitioning from… Sage on the Stage eSocrates QJM 2004;97(1):47-51.
  48. 48. Use as part of a blended approach to teaching
  49. 49. Ultimately, it‟s just one more tool
  50. 50. When was ARS introduced into medical education? 1. Early 1970s 2. Early 1980s 3. Late 1980s 4. Late 1990s
  51. 51. First generation student clicker Mayo Clin Proc 1973;48:294-7. Mayo Clin Proc 1977;52:556-60.
  52. 52. College Faculty Use of ARS 8% 13% Don't know what it is Use it some Never use it 79% Source: Faculty Survey of Student Engagement 2009
  53. 53. How frequently do you need to reengage your audience? 1. Every 3 minutes 2. Every 7 minutes 3. Every 20 minutes 4. Every 30 minutes
  54. 54. Every Minutes
  55. 55. Student populations are increasingly diverse with accompanying differences in learning styles
  56. 56. Customize the learning experience
  57. 57. Strategies for implementing ARS in the classroom
  58. 58. What ARS strategy are you MOST looking forward to using? 0% 1. Factual questions to evaluate outside readings and content 0% 2. Conceptual questions to drive discussion 0% 3. Linkable pre- and post-test questions 4. Creating questions on the fly to gauge 0% student understanding 5. Real-time course evaluations 0% Medical Teacher 2008;30(2):146-9.
  59. 59. Additional ARS Strategies Am J Pharm Educ 2008;72(4):77.
  60. 60. Assess participation/attendance
  61. 61. Administer low stakes quiz/OSCE
  62. 62. Elicit opinions on sensitive topics
  63. 63. Analyze data generated and map to objectives/outcomes
  64. 64. Use ARS to vote on student presentations
  65. 65. ARS and crowd behavior IEEE International CCA 2007;658-663.
  66. 66. Types of
  67. 67. What type of bacteria is this? 1. Staphylococcus 2. Streptococcus 3. Meningococcus
  68. 68. What color is the cerebellum? 1. Blue 2. Green 3. Purple 4. Red 5. Yellow
  69. 69. What color elicits the strongest placebo effect for depression? 1. Green 2. Red 3. Yellow 4. Pill color does not alter response
  70. 70. BMJ 1996;313:1624-26.
  71. 71. Which course would be most useful to prepare students for this patient?
  72. 72. Which course would be most useful to prepare students for this patient? 1. Communication Skills 2. Drug Delivery Systems 3. Pharmacognosy 4. Pharmacokinetics 5. Therapeutics/ Pathophysiology
  73. 73. Which country has the largest number of English speakers? 1. China 2. England 3. India 4. South Africa 5. United States
  74. 74. English Mania
  75. 75. Hurdles with ARS
  76. 76. What will the biggest hurdles be here for using ARS? 0% 1. Maintenance costs 0% 2. Requirement to modify teaching style and existing lecture 0% 3. Student resistance to change 0% 4. Technology malfunctions 0% 5. Time investment by faculty to learn software and hardware
  77. 77. Let‟s take a look at the literature
  78. 78. ARS in pharmacy schools
  79. 79. Am J Pharm Educ 2009;73(2):21. Use of ARS in Molecular Biology & Physical Chemistry Courses
  80. 80. 98% (n=109) responded that ARS helped pay attention Am J Pharm Educ 2009;73(2):21.
  81. 81. Silver medal questions must be answered solo by students For credit: 80% of the class must answer correctly Gold medal questions can be answered collaboratively For credit: 90% of the class must answer correctly Am J Pharm Educ 2009;73(2):21.
  82. 82. Alternative Detour Grading Schemes Ahead
  83. 83. Percentages of ARS Participation questions answered Points 100%-80% 5 79%-65% 4 64%-50% 3 Less than 50% 0 Sydneyeve Matrix
  84. 84. Hybrid ARS Grading Dr. Russell James III
  85. 85. *Previous 2 years student evaluations (4 pt scale)
  86. 86. Mean course grades increased: 2006 (81.8; p<0.001) 2007 (86.1; p<0.05) compared to 2008 with ARS (89.9)
  87. 87. No difference between ARS and non-ARS performance in Pathophysiology and Therapeutics with memorization exam items ARS group performed better (82.5%) than non-ARS group (77.4%) (p=0.002) with analytical type exam questions
  88. 88. Use of ARS in Cancer Module Am J Pharm Educ 2008;72(2):38.
  89. 89. Focus groups assessed ARS
  90. 90. Pilot study using ARS to connect three campuses
  91. 91. Survey Item SA/A U SD/D (%) (%) (%) Use of ARS encouraged 89.8 5.1 5.1 me to participate in class Because of ARS I 84.5 4.5 11.0 participated more than I usually do I valued that ARS let me 93.2 3.4 3.4 respond anonymously The use of ARS made 72.0 15.4 12.6 some topics clearer The use of ARS was 12.0 11.4 76.6 distracting SA=strongly agree, A=agree, U=unsure, SD=strongly disagree, D=disagree
  92. 92. What GAPS exist in the literature?
  93. 93. ARS outside of the classroom
  94. 94. live CE sessions Use of ARS for paperless J Contin Educ Health Prof 2003; 23(2):109-115
  95. 95. Int J Nurs Pract 2010;16(3):268-73. Data collection at nursing conference with ARS
  96. 96. Google Health Wikipedia Using ARS to educate patients about online health information seeking behaviors
  97. 97. Where do we go from here?
  98. 98. In healthcare – if you didn’t document it, then you didn’t do it
  99. 99. In education – if you didn’t assess it, you might as well not have done it
  100. 100. Pay attention to the details
  101. 101. Have you viewed “Death By PowerPoint”? 0% 1. Yes 2. No Yes No
  102. 102. Free Recommended Resources www.slideshare.net www.derekbruff.com/teachingwithcrs www.ted.com www.flickr.com
  103. 103. Recommended Resources
  104. 104. Summary Points • ARS is one tool in our arsenal to increase student engagement • Proactively managing the hurdles with ARS and integrating educational theory may result in a better learning experience • Benefits associated with ARS have been demonstrated but additional research is still needed
  105. 105. Expanded slide deck can be found at: www.slideshare.net/kclauson
  106. 106. Images • http://www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos/312658/june-17-2010/obama-s-simplified-bp-oil-spill-speech • htttp://www.youtube.com • http://www.aace.org/conf/edmedia/ • http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2073/2264195999_c4cc2c9ef7.jpg?v=0 • http://www.philipcoppens.com/socrates_2.jpg • http://www.villaware.com/Product.aspx?pid=1506
  107. 107. Images • http://dclips.fundraw.com/zobo500dir/ornamental_s_7.jpg • http://www.flickr.com/photos/spacelion/2295706021/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • http://www.wired.com/medtech/drugs/magazine/17-09/ff_placebo_effect?currentPage=all • http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/jay_walker_on_the_world_s_english_mania.html • www.youtube.com/watch?v=XjkCl3-PId8 • http://worldbreastfeedingweek.net/wbw2008/images/silvermedal_back.JPG • http://media.sacbee.com/static/weblogs/the_state_worker/gold%20medal.jpg
  108. 108. Images • http://blog.taragana.com/n/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/piaggio-mp3-hybrid-scooter-1.jpg • http://www.flickr.com/photos/30211781@N04/3937853319/sizes/l/in/photostream/ • http://www.flickr.com/photos/valuecarenurses/149314448/sizes/l/ • http://neatorama.cachefly.net/images/uploads/2007/03/1292945_360x249.jpg • http://www.slideshare.net Unreferenced images are licensed stock photography
  109. 109. Thank you for your time! @kevinclauson unhub.com/kevinclauson

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