To design an audio–visual stimulatory
device which can facilitate akinetic
patients to increase their gait velocities
and stride length.
POSTER # 6
Statement Of Problem And
The main objective of the proposal is to improve the stride length and gait velocity of
the akinetic patients by integrating the visual and auditory cues.
Treating freezing gait and loss of balance (LOB) disorders of Akinesia .
The combined effects of auditory and visual cues in the home and community
settings and their long term effectiveness have not been examined, which if
identified minimizes the number of falls of the patient.
Most of these studies have been conducted and confined to laboratory
To develop an arthotic device which helps the patients to overcome the freezing
gait episodes and improve their quality of life & enable them to walk easily and
Introduction and Background
• Parkinson’s disease is the progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and substantia nigra of
the cerebrum resulting in the decreased production of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which
leads to tremor and muscle weakness.
• One of the Debilitating symptom of Parkinson disease is Akinesia.
• Akinetic patients have difficulty initiating the gait, continuing the gait . maneuvering turns &
corners and balancing the gait while walking.
• Treating akinesia includes
-Intake of tablets: L-dopa.
-Providing a supporting aid for locomotion (laser walker)
-Providing sensory cues in front of the patient - specially visual and audio cues.
-Deep Brain Surgery (implanting electrodes & giving electrical stimulation whenever
freezed gait occurs).
• One such example of visual cue device is :
Optical Stimulating Glasses –based on virtual reality.
Long term objective:
To develop a cost effective, weightless, ergonomically compatible parkaid device. This helps
akinetic patients to improve their gait.
Medium term objectives:
-To increase the stride length and gait velocity of the akinetic patients.
-To prevent the number of falls, LOB and freezing episodes in akinetic patients.
-To improve their quality of living and increase their independency at home and
prototype of virtual cueing device photograph of OSG
Integration of visual and audio cues increases the
stride length and gait velocity of akinetic patients in
any type of environment.
• Voice Recording Chip.
• Input Sensors –tactile switch ,photo diode.
• Cadmium Sulphide Cells
Testing conditions-Research Plan
• It should be compatibly used for akinetic patients (right from
stage I-stage IV).
• Should be tested during day light also .
• The device should be first experimented with response of
patient to real cues in safe environment.
• Should withstand the jerky /shaky movements of lower limbs.
• Device weight need to be considered.
Description of method
• Experimental setup:
Step1: input to the sensor (Light Dependent Resistor)
Step2: Timing Circuit checks up to the threshold limit.
Step 3: if time exceeds the threshold then it activates the audio circuitry.i.e
audio recording chip.
Step 4: If not the circuit will activate the visual circuitry i.e. the Laser
Data analysis plan –flow chart
WHEN THE PATIENT IS AT REST HE
CAN CHANGE HIS MODE FROM ON
L= Intensity of Light
Th= Threshold value
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Planning and literature review
deciding on the requirements of the model
experiments on subjects with due respect to the
validation of results
Reverification of experimental resultson patients
and report generation
1. 4) Kaminsky Tatiana A, Dudgeon Brian J, Billingsley Felix F, Mitchell
Pamela H,Weghorst Suzanne J ,“Virtual cues and functional mobility of people
with Parkinson’s disease: A single-subject pilot study”, Journal of
Rehabilitation Research & Development, (2007), Vol- 44, pages 437-448.
2. 2) Suzanne Weghorst J and Kaminsky Tatiana A,” Efficacy of the EVS
Parkinson's Disease Akinesia Aid in First-Time Users ", Technical report,
accessed on <11/5/2007>).
3. 3)Ferrarin Maurizio, Brambilla M,Garavello L, Di Candia A, Pedotti A,
Rabuffetti M, “Microprocessor-controlled optical stimulating device to
improve the gait of patients with Parkinson's disease”, Journal of Medical and
Biological Engineering and Computing, (2004), Vol- 42, pages 328-332.
4. Biomedical Engineering Society Code of Ethics, February 2004
accessed on <11/09/2007>).