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Parkaid

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An orthotic device used to stimulate and unfreeze parkinson disease patients thus enabling them to continue their gait.

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Parkaid

  1. 1. To design an audio–visual stimulatory device which can facilitate akinetic patients to increase their gait velocities and stride length. -Kranthi Cherukuri POSTER # 6
  2. 2. Statement Of Problem And Significance The main objective of the proposal is to improve the stride length and gait velocity of the akinetic patients by integrating the visual and auditory cues. Needs area:  Treating freezing gait and loss of balance (LOB) disorders of Akinesia . Technology Gaps:  The combined effects of auditory and visual cues in the home and community settings and their long term effectiveness have not been examined, which if identified minimizes the number of falls of the patient.  Most of these studies have been conducted and confined to laboratory environments [4]. Significance:  To develop an arthotic device which helps the patients to overcome the freezing gait episodes and improve their quality of life & enable them to walk easily and independently.
  3. 3. Introduction and Background • Parkinson’s disease is the progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and substantia nigra of the cerebrum resulting in the decreased production of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which leads to tremor and muscle weakness. • One of the Debilitating symptom of Parkinson disease is Akinesia[2]. • Akinetic patients have difficulty initiating the gait, continuing the gait . maneuvering turns & corners and balancing the gait while walking. • Treating akinesia includes -Intake of tablets: L-dopa. -Providing a supporting aid for locomotion (laser walker) -Providing sensory cues in front of the patient - specially visual and audio cues. -Deep Brain Surgery (implanting electrodes & giving electrical stimulation whenever freezed gait occurs). • One such example of visual cue device is : Optical Stimulating Glasses[2] –based on virtual reality.
  4. 4. Project Objectives Long term objective: To develop a cost effective, weightless, ergonomically compatible parkaid device. This helps akinetic patients to improve their gait. Medium term objectives: -To increase the stride length and gait velocity of the akinetic patients. -To prevent the number of falls, LOB and freezing episodes in akinetic patients. -To improve their quality of living and increase their independency at home and community settings. prototype of virtual cueing device[2] photograph of OSG[3]
  5. 5. Hypothesis Integration of visual and audio cues increases the stride length and gait velocity of akinetic patients in any type of environment. Materials used: • Microcontroller • Voice Recording Chip. • Input Sensors –tactile switch ,photo diode. • Cadmium Sulphide Cells
  6. 6. Testing conditions-Research Plan • It should be compatibly used for akinetic patients (right from stage I-stage IV). • Should be tested during day light also . • The device should be first experimented with response of patient to real cues in safe environment. • Should withstand the jerky /shaky movements of lower limbs. • Device weight need to be considered.
  7. 7. Description of method • Experimental setup: • Algorithm: Step1: input to the sensor (Light Dependent Resistor) Step2: Timing Circuit checks up to the threshold limit. Step 3: if time exceeds the threshold then it activates the audio circuitry.i.e audio recording chip. Step 4: If not the circuit will activate the visual circuitry i.e. the Laser Pointer. INPUT SENSOR MICROCONTR OLLER(TIMIN G CIRCUIT) TIME COMPARISON LASER POINTER/ AUDIO CHIP DISPLAY
  8. 8. Data analysis plan –flow chart ENABLE AUDIO CUE IF L>TH ENABLE LASER POINTER DISABLE LED IF T>5SEC CONTROLLER INPUT TO SENSOR NO YES YES NO WHEN THE PATIENT IS AT REST HE CAN CHANGE HIS MODE FROM ON TO OFF DISABLE AUDIO CUE T =Time L= Intensity of Light Th= Threshold value START
  9. 9. Project timeline 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Planning and literature review deciding on the requirements of the model experiments on subjects with due respect to the ethic codes[4] validation of results Reverification of experimental resultson patients and report generation Months
  10. 10. References 1. 4) Kaminsky Tatiana A, Dudgeon Brian J, Billingsley Felix F, Mitchell Pamela H,Weghorst Suzanne J ,“Virtual cues and functional mobility of people with Parkinson’s disease: A single-subject pilot study”, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, (2007), Vol- 44, pages 437-448. 2. 2) Suzanne Weghorst J and Kaminsky Tatiana A,” Efficacy of the EVS Parkinson's Disease Akinesia Aid in First-Time Users ", Technical report, (2003),www.hitl.washington.edu/publications//r-2004-04/r-2004-04.pdf (last accessed on <11/5/2007>). 3. 3)Ferrarin Maurizio, Brambilla M,Garavello L, Di Candia A, Pedotti A, Rabuffetti M, “Microprocessor-controlled optical stimulating device to improve the gait of patients with Parkinson's disease”, Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, (2004), Vol- 42, pages 328-332. 4. Biomedical Engineering Society Code of Ethics, February 2004 http://www.bmes.org/pdf/2004ApprovedCodeofEthicsShortForm.pdf (last accessed on <11/09/2007>).

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