Chapter 12 Clay 8 th -7 th century BCE Jar with frieze of bulls, Neo-Assyrian, Iran Raku pot
Clay Terms <ul><li>Ceramics – making objects from clay </li></ul><ul><li>Firing – clay exposed to heat hardens in a process called firing </li></ul><ul><li>Potter – a person who works with clay </li></ul><ul><li>Earthenware – fired at a relatively low temperature and is porous after firing </li></ul><ul><li>Stoneware – fired at a high temperature and is not porous </li></ul><ul><li>Porcelain – fired at a high temperature, rare, non porous, first developed in China </li></ul>
<ul><li>Kiln – a clay oven that bakes the clay at temperatures of 2200 degrees and more </li></ul><ul><li>Slip – liquid clay used to secure pieces together. Can be colored for use in decoration of clay called underglazes. </li></ul><ul><li>Glaze – liquid with a silica base that turns into a glass like substance when fired. Glaze creates a nonporous surface and can be glossy, matte, translucent or opaque depending on the chemical composition used. </li></ul><ul><li>Raku – a form of firing where the bisque is pulled from a hot kiln and put into a fire proof container with combustible materials </li></ul>
Basic Building Methods <ul><li>Pinch – involves starting with a ball of clay and thinning it with the pressure of the thumb and fingers. It looks easy but requires patience and dexterity with sensitivity to thickness and form. The sides should be no wider than ¼”. </li></ul><ul><li>Coil – is rolled into snakes joined one on top of each other or in other ways. The coils are either smoothed together or joins are secured by scoring and slipping. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Slab – clay is flattened by hand or with a roller and the resulting slab is then used around molds or cut to form pieces to build and join with scoring and slipping. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Modeling – to build on an armature </li></ul><ul><li>5. Throwing – shaping clay on a moving wheel </li></ul>
<ul><li>Wet clay – moist clay is the most pliable when beginning and forming the basic project. </li></ul><ul><li>Leather hard clay – is still moist, but had dried enough so it will maintain its formed shape when handled. This stage is when to clean, trim, and add attachments with slip. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bone dry clay - is completely dry at room temperature. Project will be extremely fragile at this point and no further attachments can be made. </li></ul>Three Stages of Working Material
Steps in the Firing Process <ul><li>Greenware – a finished bone dry project before it is fired in a kiln. It is usually left uncolored at this point, but can be decorated with colored slips. </li></ul><ul><li>Bisque – is clay that has been fired in the kiln once to force moisture out, strengthen the form, and create a glaze ready surface. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Glazeware – a bisque ware piece is coated with glaze which forms a hard glass like surface when fired. Glazeware must be fired to a specific melting point for the glaze to create the glass-like surface. </li></ul>
Finishing Methods <ul><li>Burnishing – using a spoon or other smooth object to polish greenware giving it a smooth finish before firing. </li></ul><ul><li>Under glazing – to use a clay based substance on greenware which is then fired once. </li></ul><ul><li>Glazing – to use a silica base substance to create a glass like finish on the bisque. </li></ul><ul><li>Painting – bisque can be painted with acrylics, oil based paints, and watercolor. </li></ul>
Glass Glass has been used for at least 4 thousand years as a material for practical containers of all shapes and sizes. In the Middle Ages, stained glass was used for churches and blown-glass pieces have been made in Venice Italy since the Renaissance. Glass is a fine medium for decorative inlays in a variety of objects including jewelry. Dale Chihuly, blown-glass Installation of Chihuly’s in the Kalamazoo Institute of Art
Metal Metal’s primary characteristics are strength and formability. The various types of metal most often used for sculpture can be hammered, cut, drawn out, welded, joined with rivets or cast. Early metal smiths created tools, vessels, armor, and weapons. The bronze doors, created by Lorenzo Ghiberti, at left, to the Florence Baptistery are a series of New Testament scenes, plus saints, in the format of 28 quatrefoils. Each scene employs just a few figures, dramatically set in high relief against a neutral background, with the context conveyed by minimal stage like settings though with some minutely observed details in the landscapes, and all executed in the graceful linear rhythms of the International Gothic style.
Wood The living spirit of wood is given a second life in handmade objects. Growth characteristics if individual trees remain visible in the grain of the wood long after trees are cut, giving wood vitality not found in other materials. Wood work by Virginia Dotson
Fiber Fiber art includes such processes as weaving, stitching, basketmaking, surface design, wearable art and handmade papermaking. These fiber processes use natural and synthetic fibers in both traditional and innovative ways. Artists working with fiber draw on the heritage of traditional practices and also explore new avenues of expression. In the example at left, weaving is based on the interlacing of fibers and cross fibers. Weavers create patterns by changing the number and placements of interwoven threads. Islamic Persia during the period of the Safavid Dynasty in the 16 th century created some of the most spectacular carpets in the world. In the Ardabil Carpet dated 946, at left, contains about 300 knots per square inch. Requiring approximately 25 million knots when finished.
Fiber Picasso's Studio , 1991 Dancing at the Louvre , 1991 Faith Ringgold began her artistic career more than 35 years ago as a painter. Today, she is best known for her painted story quilts -- art that combines painting, quilted fabric and storytelling. In addition to exhibiting her work in major museums across the world, she has written and illustrated five children's books. In this particular series, Ringgold combines the Afro-American tradition of quilt-making with an insertion of black society into the Western (European based) history of Art.
Innovative Fiber 80 BACKS, 1976-80, burlap and resin, life size Innovations in off-loom fiber work have taken the fiber arts into the realm of sculpture in a variety of ways. Abakanowicz has been at the leading edge of nontraditional uses of fiber since the 1960s. Her powerful series called 80 backs has unforgettable quality – at once personal and universal. The earthly color and textures of the formed burlap suggest the capacity to endure dire hardships and to survive with strength. Her forms have what she feels all art must have – mysterious, bewitching power. COEXISTENCE 2002, burlap, resin, group of 14 pieces