Kendall Owens&Jenna NewmanIf I could tell you that, I wouldn’t have to dance it.”-Isadora Duncan
BALLETOrigins Started in Italy, France Originated in the Renaissance courts to provide entertainment forthe royalty.
Positioning and Movement Dancers maintain erect posture and a turned-out positionfacing the audience. Movements followed the rhythm of the music Movements defied gravity and dancers seemed to soarthrough the air ignoring the realities of life. Every movement had its “place” or was “set in stone Very structured and restricting movement.BALLET
From Ballet Modern* Multiple movements in art, literature, andtheatre influenced the changes in dance.* Major events and conditions of society suchas the Great Depression and World War 1and 2* during these times people used dance topass the time.* Dancers wanted more freedom andindependence and caused them to veer awayfrom the technical aspects of dance.
The rise of modern danceOriginsﻡ Modern was developed in rejection to balletﻡ Flourished in areas that lacked strong balletsuch as Europe (where it originated)ﻡ 1930’s- the U.S was the center for “danceexperimentation”Goalsﻡ Dancers wished to be:ﻡ more creativeﻡ taken more seriously as an artistnot just a performerﻡ Make dance more “personal” andrelatableAddrelationshipto art to thepresentationand leavespace nextto bullet
Modern dance characteristicsMovementsﻡ Free movementﻡ Movements used a multidimensionalorientation in spaceﻡ Dancers stood sideways or turned theirbacks to the audienceﻡ Deliberate falling motionsﻡ Take into account the weight of the body
Artist performance Relationshipﻡ Personalﻡ Sometimes told stories about real feelings such assorrow, rage, happiness, or excitementﻡ Silence was used as an aesthetical experienceﻡ 1 artist often acted as the choreographer andperformerModern dance characteristics
MARTHA GRAHAM“The Mother of Modern Dance” Graham believed in internal movements. She used naturalhuman movements (walking and breathing) and turnedthem into dance movements. She was inspired by art, history, literature, and socialcommentary.
Techniques Focused on the use of contraction and release throughthe natural exhaling and inhaling of breathing Added abdominal and pelvic contractions and floorwork to dance Very grounded movement in contrast to the airbornemovements of ballet Introduced moving scenery, the use of props andsculptures as symbols, and the combination of speechand dance. Used sharp angular movement Dressed in long, straight, dark dresses instead of thetraditional light, flowing chiffon costumesMARTHA GRAHAM“The Mother of Modern Dance”
MARTHA GRAHAMWorks“It’s not my job to lookbeautiful. It’s my job to lookinteresting.” Her pieces were very dramatic. Her goal was to portray the more realfeelings of life such as guilt, desire, and rage. She wished to reflectthe true feelings felt in life rather than the gimmick feelings likealways being happy.
MARTHA GRAHAMWorks Chronicle (1936): This is one of Martha’s mostdefining work. It brought serious issues to the stagein a dramatic style. Influenced by the Wall StreetCrash, the Great Depression, and the Spanish CivilWar, it focused on the ideas of depression andisolation reflected through a dark nature of set andcostumes. Primitive Canticles influenced by AmericanIndians. Lamentation (1930)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xgf3xgbKYko(show beginning then jump to dance) Frontier (1976)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2Q6UJN0ef0(2:25)
ISADORA DUNCAN She found inspiration in music, poetry, and nature. Used the connection between her own thoughts and feelings with themovements they can generate to portray a message. She felt that dancewas a spiritual expression from your soul.
ISADORA DUNCANTechniques Uses Greek sculptures as a source of movement Created dances that alternated between resisting andgiving in to gravity She introduced the idea that movement comes fromyour solar plexus and out from there. Dances barefoot
ISADORA DUNCANWorksDances inspired by the Russian Revolution andher most political works (1912-1925) Mother Revolutionary Marche SalvDances in response to World War 1 and dancesof despair, lamentation, and renewal followingthe death of her children (1912-1920) Military Polonaise Marche Heroiquehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Ra19kIOFCo
Dances inspired by Greek Antiquity such assculptures, vase paintings, and mythology(1900-1915) Dance of the Amazons Morning Star Tangra Orpheus’ LamentISADORA DUNCANWorksDances inspired by nature set asautobiographical dance poems to music (1900-1910) Water Study Lullabye Butterfly EtudeDances inspired by passion and romance due toIsadora’s love life and art led her to createworks that unleashed her torment andreassuring her womanhood (1908-1915) Rose Petals The Ave Maria Death and the Maiden
MERCE CUNNINGHAM Introduced the idea of the relationship between dance andmusic may occur in the same time and space, but createdindependently of each other. Used chance procedures, such as rolling a dice to determinewhat part of the body to use Partnered with John Cage. Cage’s music was a frameworkfor Cunningham’s movement to exist.
MERCE CUNNINGHAMTechniques Rigorous movement Emphasis on acquiring strength, clarityand precision Fused Graham techniques andtraditional ballet
Techniques Uses the idea of the body’s own “line of energy”to promote easy natural movement. Intense movement from the spine, of the torso andfeet choreography was an expression of the nature ofchange itself He wasn’t interested in telling stories, but used theintensity and energy of the human body to createmovementMERCE CUNNINGHAM
In his works dancers often danced alone even in duets orensembles, and music and design would act as environmentsto the dancers and audience.MERCE CUNNINGHAMWorks Borst Park (1972), Inlets (1977), and Inlets 2(1983)- inspired by wildlife Solo (1975)- also inspired by wildlife. Heseemed to transform from one animal toanother. Rainforest (1968)- inspired by anthropology The Coast zone-http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OBcwL8ROBAk Second Hand-http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=-FwiMlDQ7rI&feature=endscreen
Reactions to modern danceThe reactions to the shift in dance were mixed.Against the change:→Preferred the classical ballet→Argued that it was not art→Dance should remain a performance based idea→Highlighted the body in a less than professional manner→Rebellious
Reactions to modern danceFor Modern:→Worthy of being classified as art→Creative qualities→Made personal connections→Includes the audience in the experience→More for the public view (not just royalty/rich)
Moderns Impact on Danceﺼ Dance is now considered an art formﺼ It has led to various styles of dance(lyrical, contemporary, etc.)ﺼ More emotional and personal/relatableﺼ Takes into account the realities of life(gravity, feelings/emotions, natural movements)ﺼ Free/angular movementﺼ No “classes”ﺼ Dancers start at earlier ages