Chapter 5Medical Math© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied,duplicated, or posted to a p...
Importance of Math• Frequently used in health care• Requires 100 percent accuracy• Errors can have dire consequences      ...
Math Anxiety•   Common problem•   Impedes performance•   Can be overcome•   False beliefs versus reality              © 20...
Question• True or False:  – If a person currently has problems with math, it    can be assumed that it will always be a   ...
Answer• False• Math anxiety  – Learned behavior  – Can be overcome           © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved....
Basic Calculations• Whole numbers  – Add  – Subtract  – Multiply  – Divide           © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights R...
Decimals• Expressed in units of ten• Placement values• Zero used before decimal point if number  begins to right of decima...
Working with Decimals• Placement of decimal  – Add  – Subtract  – Multiply  – Divide           © 2012 Cengage Learning. Al...
Fractions• Represents part of a whole• Numerator• Denominator           © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May ...
Working with Fractions•   Add•   Subtract•   Multiply•   Divide•   Improper fractions•   Reducing fractions             © ...
Percentages• Expresses whole or part of a whole• Whole expressed as 100 percent• Convert to decimal  – Then perform calcul...
Ratios• Show relationships between numbers or  like values• Compare presence of one value to another• Frequently used to e...
Converting Decimals, Fractions, and           Percentages•   Decimal to fraction•   Decimal to percentage•   Fraction to d...
Converting Decimals, Fractions, and           Percentages•   Percentage to decimal•   Percentage to fraction•   Percentage...
Question• True or False:  – ¾, 75%, and 0.75 are all equivalent.            © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. ...
Answer• True• ¾  – Fraction  – If converted to percentage = 75%  – If converted to decimal = 0.75           © 2012 Cengage...
Rounding Numbers• What does it mean?  – Round up  – Round down          © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May ...
Question• What is 2.346 rounded to the nearest  tenth?  A. 2  B. 2.3  C. 2.35            © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Righ...
Answer•   B. 2.3•   2.346 rounded to nearest tenth = 2.3•   2.346 rounded to nearest whole number = 2•   2.346 rounded to ...
Solving with Proportions• Statement of equality between two ratios• Used for converting from one unit to  another• Steps f...
Estimating• Anticipate results• Determine if answer is reasonable• Calculate approximate answer           © 2012 Cengage L...
Question• If the order is to give 2 grams of a  medication and you have 1,000 milligram  tablets, how many tablets would y...
Answer• B. 2 tablets• 1 gram = 1,000 milligrams  – 2 grams = 2,000 milligrams or 2 tablets• ½ tablet = 500 milligrams  – 0...
Military Time•   24-hour clock•   No AM or PM•   Avoids errors•   12th hour = noon•   24th hour = midnight             © 2...
Question• True or False:  – The military time of 1600 is the same as 6 p.m.    traditional time.            © 2012 Cengage...
Answer• False• 1600 = 4 p.m.• 6 p.m. would be 1800 military time           © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. M...
Military Clock© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied,duplicated, or posted to a publicly...
Roman Numerals• Arabic versus Roman numerals• All numbers from seven key numerals  – I, V, X, L, C, D, and M            © ...
Roman Numerals Rules• If smaller numeral is in front of larger  numeral• If smaller numeral is after larger numeral• If sa...
Question• How would 43 be written in Roman  numerals?  A. XLIII  B. XXXXIII  C. XXXI           © 2012 Cengage Learning. Al...
Answer• A. XLIII• XLIII = 43• XXXXIII incorrect  – Same numeral cannot be placed next to itself    more than three times• ...
Angles• Comparison to reference plane• Using angles in health care• Measured in units  – Degrees          © 2012 Cengage L...
Angles© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied,duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessi...
Systems of Measurement• Three systems  – Distance    • Length  – Capacity    • Volume  – Mass    • Weight           © 2012...
Systems of Measurement• Nomenclature  – Method of naming• Need to convert between systems           © 2012 Cengage Learnin...
Household System•   Used in U.S.•   Nomenclature for distance/length•   Nomenclature for capacity/volume•   Nomenclature f...
Question• Which of the following is a capacity/volume  unit in the household system?  A. Inch  B. Pound  C. Ounce         ...
Answer• C. Ounce• Ounce  – Unit of measurement for capacity/volume in    household system  – Also unit of measurement for ...
Answer• C. Ounce• Inch  – Measurement for distance/length• Pound  – Measurement for mass/weight           © 2012 Cengage L...
Metric System•   Used in Europe•   More accurate•   Easier to use•   Based on unit of ten•   Convert units by moving decim...
Metric System• Nomenclature for distance/length• Nomenclature for capacity/volume• Nomenclature for mass/weight          ©...
Question• How many centimeters are there in one  meter?  A. 10  B. 100  C. 1000            © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Ri...
Answer• B. 100• Meter  – Base unit for distance/length in metric system  – Centi = 1/100  – 1 meter = 100 centimeters     ...
Apothecary System•   Oldest and least used•   Nomenclature for capacity/volume•   Nomenclature for mass/weight•   Common e...
Converting Systems• Why converting between systems is  needed in health care• Common equivalencies between systems• Equiva...
Question• A patient reports that they drank 8 ounces  (oz) of water. What is this in milliliters (mL)?  A. 80 mL  B. 120 m...
Answer• C. 240 mL• 1 oz = 30 mL  – 8 oz = 240 mL           © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanne...
Temperature Conversion•   Fahrenheit (F) used in U.S.•   Celsius (C) used in Europe•   Boiling point and freezing point co...
Temperature Scales © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a pu...
Question• True or False:  – 37 degrees C is a normal reading.           © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May ...
Answer• True• 37 degrees C = 98.6 degrees F  – Normal reading           © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May ...
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Chapter 5 Medical Math

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Chapter 5 Medical Math

  1. 1. Chapter 5Medical Math© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied,duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  2. 2. Importance of Math• Frequently used in health care• Requires 100 percent accuracy• Errors can have dire consequences © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  3. 3. Math Anxiety• Common problem• Impedes performance• Can be overcome• False beliefs versus reality © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  4. 4. Question• True or False: – If a person currently has problems with math, it can be assumed that it will always be a problem. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  5. 5. Answer• False• Math anxiety – Learned behavior – Can be overcome © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  6. 6. Basic Calculations• Whole numbers – Add – Subtract – Multiply – Divide © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  7. 7. Decimals• Expressed in units of ten• Placement values• Zero used before decimal point if number begins to right of decimal point © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  8. 8. Working with Decimals• Placement of decimal – Add – Subtract – Multiply – Divide © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  9. 9. Fractions• Represents part of a whole• Numerator• Denominator © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  10. 10. Working with Fractions• Add• Subtract• Multiply• Divide• Improper fractions• Reducing fractions © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  11. 11. Percentages• Expresses whole or part of a whole• Whole expressed as 100 percent• Convert to decimal – Then perform calculation © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  12. 12. Ratios• Show relationships between numbers or like values• Compare presence of one value to another• Frequently used to express strength of solution © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  13. 13. Converting Decimals, Fractions, and Percentages• Decimal to fraction• Decimal to percentage• Fraction to decimal• Fraction to percentage © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  14. 14. Converting Decimals, Fractions, and Percentages• Percentage to decimal• Percentage to fraction• Percentage to ratio• Ratio to percentage © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  15. 15. Question• True or False: – ¾, 75%, and 0.75 are all equivalent. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  16. 16. Answer• True• ¾ – Fraction – If converted to percentage = 75% – If converted to decimal = 0.75 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  17. 17. Rounding Numbers• What does it mean? – Round up – Round down © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  18. 18. Question• What is 2.346 rounded to the nearest tenth? A. 2 B. 2.3 C. 2.35 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  19. 19. Answer• B. 2.3• 2.346 rounded to nearest tenth = 2.3• 2.346 rounded to nearest whole number = 2• 2.346 rounded to nearest hundredth = 2.35 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  20. 20. Solving with Proportions• Statement of equality between two ratios• Used for converting from one unit to another• Steps for solving problems © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  21. 21. Estimating• Anticipate results• Determine if answer is reasonable• Calculate approximate answer © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  22. 22. Question• If the order is to give 2 grams of a medication and you have 1,000 milligram tablets, how many tablets would you give? A. ½ tablet B. 2 tablets C. 4 tablets © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  23. 23. Answer• B. 2 tablets• 1 gram = 1,000 milligrams – 2 grams = 2,000 milligrams or 2 tablets• ½ tablet = 500 milligrams – 0.5 grams (too little)• 4 tablets = 4,000 milligrams – 4 grams (too much) © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  24. 24. Military Time• 24-hour clock• No AM or PM• Avoids errors• 12th hour = noon• 24th hour = midnight © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  25. 25. Question• True or False: – The military time of 1600 is the same as 6 p.m. traditional time. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  26. 26. Answer• False• 1600 = 4 p.m.• 6 p.m. would be 1800 military time © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  27. 27. Military Clock© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied,duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  28. 28. Roman Numerals• Arabic versus Roman numerals• All numbers from seven key numerals – I, V, X, L, C, D, and M © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  29. 29. Roman Numerals Rules• If smaller numeral is in front of larger numeral• If smaller numeral is after larger numeral• If same numeral is repeated• Limit to number of times numeral is placed next to itself © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  30. 30. Question• How would 43 be written in Roman numerals? A. XLIII B. XXXXIII C. XXXI © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  31. 31. Answer• A. XLIII• XLIII = 43• XXXXIII incorrect – Same numeral cannot be placed next to itself more than three times• XXXI = 31 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  32. 32. Angles• Comparison to reference plane• Using angles in health care• Measured in units – Degrees © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  33. 33. Angles© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied,duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  34. 34. Systems of Measurement• Three systems – Distance • Length – Capacity • Volume – Mass • Weight © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  35. 35. Systems of Measurement• Nomenclature – Method of naming• Need to convert between systems © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  36. 36. Household System• Used in U.S.• Nomenclature for distance/length• Nomenclature for capacity/volume• Nomenclature for mass/weight• Common equivalents• How to convert © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  37. 37. Question• Which of the following is a capacity/volume unit in the household system? A. Inch B. Pound C. Ounce © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  38. 38. Answer• C. Ounce• Ounce – Unit of measurement for capacity/volume in household system – Also unit of measurement for mass/weight © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  39. 39. Answer• C. Ounce• Inch – Measurement for distance/length• Pound – Measurement for mass/weight © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  40. 40. Metric System• Used in Europe• More accurate• Easier to use• Based on unit of ten• Convert units by moving decimal• Common prefixes © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  41. 41. Metric System• Nomenclature for distance/length• Nomenclature for capacity/volume• Nomenclature for mass/weight © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  42. 42. Question• How many centimeters are there in one meter? A. 10 B. 100 C. 1000 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  43. 43. Answer• B. 100• Meter – Base unit for distance/length in metric system – Centi = 1/100 – 1 meter = 100 centimeters © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  44. 44. Apothecary System• Oldest and least used• Nomenclature for capacity/volume• Nomenclature for mass/weight• Common equivalents• How to convert• Roman numerals and abbreviation for half © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  45. 45. Converting Systems• Why converting between systems is needed in health care• Common equivalencies between systems• Equivalencies frequently not exact• Steps to convert © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  46. 46. Question• A patient reports that they drank 8 ounces (oz) of water. What is this in milliliters (mL)? A. 80 mL B. 120 mL C. 240 mL © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  47. 47. Answer• C. 240 mL• 1 oz = 30 mL – 8 oz = 240 mL © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  48. 48. Temperature Conversion• Fahrenheit (F) used in U.S.• Celsius (C) used in Europe• Boiling point and freezing point comparisons• Converting between Celsius and Fahrenheit readings © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  49. 49. Temperature Scales © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  50. 50. Question• True or False: – 37 degrees C is a normal reading. © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
  51. 51. Answer• True• 37 degrees C = 98.6 degrees F – Normal reading © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

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