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Abraham Maslow
Father of Humanistic Psychology
Third Wave
• Abraham Maslow
(1908-1970)
• Forerunner of positive
psychology.
• Radically different view
of human nature.
•...
Harry Harlow’s lab
• Maslow worked in Harlow’s lab
as a student at the University
of Wisconsin.
• Harlow famous for the mo...
Maslow at Brandeis
• Maslow began teaching in NYC area.
• Met many leading neo-Freudians, including
Alfred Adler and Erich...
Maslow rejected Freud’s ideas
• Psychoanalysis based
on what went wrong.
• Theories based on
clinically ill patients.
• Re...
Humanistic Psychology
• Positive instincts to fulfill human potential.
• Theories based on study of successful,
healthy pe...
Case studies
• Began with study of two close friends.
• Expanded to 10 other anonymous living
persons.
• Historical figure...
Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs
Guiding principles
• 1. Needs arranged according to
potency and strength. Lower needs
stronger and more urgently felt.
• 2...
Hierarchy of needs
• 3. Needs are filled sequentially,
lowest to highest.
• Maslow did not believe that you
had to complet...
Physiological needs
• Body needs
• Hunger and thirst
• Need met by most people in
US.
• But may take dominance in
emergenc...
Safety needs
• Security in our environment.
• Stability and protection.
• Job security, insurance,
retirement plans.
• Sto...
Love and Belongingness
• Friends, life partner, children,
social clubs, religious
communities.
• Stunting of this need lea...
Esteem needs has two levels
• Lower level  need for respect from others
• Such as recognition, attention, appreciation.
•...
Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs
Cycle of D-motives
• Deficit needs.
• Deprivation leads to drive
to satisfy need.
• Achieve homeostasis.
• Not just biolog...
Being motives
• Once D-needs fulfilled, being needs
emerge.
• Growth motivation
• Not governed by homeostasis.
• Becomes s...
Portrait of self-actualizers
• Small group according to Maslow.
• 1-2% of the adult population.
• Generally 60 plus years ...
Self-actualizers (cont.)
• Autonomous, resisted enculturation.
• Acceptance of self and others.
• Strong ethics, spiritual...
Peak experiences
• Moments of transcendence.
• To climb above culture.
• Perceptual experiences, largely passive.
• Spirit...
Peak experiences described
• Davis (1991) interviewed 250 people.
• 80% reported having a peak experience.
• Might share c...
Failure to actualize
• Maslow many fail to actualize because
• 1) Growth tendency is weaker than deficiency
motives. Hard ...
Jonah Complex
• Maslow used biblical story of Jonah
to illustrate those unwilling to take
risks.
• Jonah tried to run away...
Maslow’s critics
• Need hierarchy is wildly popular.
• Education, management,
psychotherapy, and nursing.
• Any research t...
Hierarchy of needs (5 or 2)
• Little empirical support for 5 stages.
• Stronger evidence for two levels:
deficiency and gr...
Other criticisms
• Elitist (1-2%): Very small club.
• Growth motivation more wide spread
than Maslow believed.
• Carl Roge...
Client-Centered Therapy
• Carl Rogers (1902-1987)
• Humanistic attitude.
• Unconditional positive
regard.
• Nondirective a...
Winter at Valley Forge
• Washington’s Army
was hungry, cold,
away from families,
in fear for their lives.
• Mostly volunte...
Bias towards Western Culture
• Emphasis on individual
achievement, getting credit
for new idea.
• Esteem in standing out.
...
Third Wave
• Positive side
• Optimistic view of
humankind.
• Human abilities.
• Growth potential.
• Healthy personality.
•...
Fourth Wave
• Positive Psychology
• Martin Seligman
• Learned Optimism
• Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi
• Flow
• Humanistic Psyc...
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Maslow

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Maslow

  1. 1. Abraham Maslow Father of Humanistic Psychology
  2. 2. Third Wave • Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) • Forerunner of positive psychology. • Radically different view of human nature. • Rejected ideas of Freud and Skinner.
  3. 3. Harry Harlow’s lab • Maslow worked in Harlow’s lab as a student at the University of Wisconsin. • Harlow famous for the monkey studies using wire and cloth mothers. • Maslow didn’t see his future in experimental psychology.
  4. 4. Maslow at Brandeis • Maslow began teaching in NYC area. • Met many leading neo-Freudians, including Alfred Adler and Erich Fromm. • In 1951, Maslow became the chairman of the psychology department at Brandeis University. • Met Gestalt Psychologist Kurt Goldstein who introduced him to the idea of self-actualization. Goldstein first trained as a neurologist and was an early advocate of holistic medicine. Have to deal with the whole organism.
  5. 5. Maslow rejected Freud’s ideas • Psychoanalysis based on what went wrong. • Theories based on clinically ill patients. • Repressing strong sexual urges. • Animal passions. • “Why pick the wolf?”
  6. 6. Humanistic Psychology • Positive instincts to fulfill human potential. • Theories based on study of successful, healthy people (interviews). • Albert Schweitzer, Eleanor Roosevelt. • Strong motivating force to do good. • Be the best that they could be. • Self-actualization.
  7. 7. Case studies • Began with study of two close friends. • Expanded to 10 other anonymous living persons. • Historical figures: Lincoln, Jefferson. • Important personalities: Einstein. • Examined biographies, writings and interviewed those still living. • Biographic analysis: Qualitative research
  8. 8. Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs
  9. 9. Guiding principles • 1. Needs arranged according to potency and strength. Lower needs stronger and more urgently felt. • 2. Lower needs appear earlier in development. • Babies concerned with biological, toddlers with safety, seniors more likely to be self-actualized.
  10. 10. Hierarchy of needs • 3. Needs are filled sequentially, lowest to highest. • Maslow did not believe that you had to completely satisfy each level before moving to a higher one. • Example: work for safety when 60% of physiological needs met.
  11. 11. Physiological needs • Body needs • Hunger and thirst • Need met by most people in US. • But may take dominance in emergencies. • Natural disasters. • Hurricane Katrina
  12. 12. Safety needs • Security in our environment. • Stability and protection. • Job security, insurance, retirement plans. • Stock market crash wipes out nest egg. • Pathologies: OCD: no sense of security, PTSD and panic attacks. Black Monday, 1987
  13. 13. Love and Belongingness • Friends, life partner, children, social clubs, religious communities. • Stunting of this need leads to most behavior problems. • Importance of social bonds. • Some question whether you can love others until you love yourself  Esteem needs
  14. 14. Esteem needs has two levels • Lower level  need for respect from others • Such as recognition, attention, appreciation. • Higher level  self respect • Such as confidence, competence, mastery. • Pathologies: inferiority complex, depression. • Question: Can others respect you if you don’t respect yourself?
  15. 15. Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs
  16. 16. Cycle of D-motives • Deficit needs. • Deprivation leads to drive to satisfy need. • Achieve homeostasis. • Not just biological needs. • Essential for survival. • Even instinctual. Drive State In Balance Until.. Deprivation Satisfy Drive
  17. 17. Being motives • Once D-needs fulfilled, being needs emerge. • Growth motivation • Not governed by homeostasis. • Becomes stronger as you fulfill them. • Strive now to be all that you can be. • Self-actualizers.
  18. 18. Portrait of self-actualizers • Small group according to Maslow. • 1-2% of the adult population. • Generally 60 plus years old • Reality and problem centered. • Enjoy solitude and have deep personal relationships with a few close friends.
  19. 19. Self-actualizers (cont.) • Autonomous, resisted enculturation. • Acceptance of self and others. • Strong ethics, spiritual, seldom religious. • Prefer spontaneity and simplicity. • Unhostile sense of humor. • Source: Prof. George Boeree http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/maslow.html
  20. 20. Peak experiences • Moments of transcendence. • To climb above culture. • Perceptual experiences, largely passive. • Spiritual realm for some but not necessarily religious. • People may be reluctant to report. • Unlike FLOW where you have superior functioning, self-absorbed.
  21. 21. Peak experiences described • Davis (1991) interviewed 250 people. • 80% reported having a peak experience. • Might share contents with close friend. • Experience special, intimate and personal. • Not easy to describe in words. • Transcend normal language.
  22. 22. Failure to actualize • Maslow many fail to actualize because • 1) Growth tendency is weaker than deficiency motives. Hard to transcend hunger. • 2) Normal culture downplays the importance of the inner life (voice). Just trying to gain control of our impulses. • 3) Growth requires taking risks than many are unwilling to do. Example: international education. Study in another culture.
  23. 23. Jonah Complex • Maslow used biblical story of Jonah to illustrate those unwilling to take risks. • Jonah tried to run away from risk. • Only after spending some time in the whale did he agree to complete his mission. • Maslow called this reluctance the Jonah Complex.
  24. 24. Maslow’s critics • Need hierarchy is wildly popular. • Education, management, psychotherapy, and nursing. • Any research to suggest it’s true? • Maslow’s research case studies. • Others have done studies or larger and more diverse groups.
  25. 25. Hierarchy of needs (5 or 2) • Little empirical support for 5 stages. • Stronger evidence for two levels: deficiency and growth. • Developmental growth does have much support either. • Older adults rate self-actualization as their lowest NOT highest need. • College students most concerned about esteem and security
  26. 26. Other criticisms • Elitist (1-2%): Very small club. • Growth motivation more wide spread than Maslow believed. • Carl Rogers: “every person has one basic tendency and striving– to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experienced self.”
  27. 27. Client-Centered Therapy • Carl Rogers (1902-1987) • Humanistic attitude. • Unconditional positive regard. • Nondirective approach. • Reflective listening. • Healing will occur naturally.
  28. 28. Winter at Valley Forge • Washington’s Army was hungry, cold, away from families, in fear for their lives. • Mostly volunteers. • Some deserted but enough remained to form the core of a new army. Sacrifice lower needs to meet those of a higher calling.
  29. 29. Bias towards Western Culture • Emphasis on individual achievement, getting credit for new idea. • Esteem in standing out. • Asian cultures all succeed together. • Emphasis on team work. • Japanese saying: “The nail that sticks up gets pounded down.”
  30. 30. Third Wave • Positive side • Optimistic view of humankind. • Human abilities. • Growth potential. • Healthy personality. • Pyramid of needs • Negative side • Non-scientific. • Philosophy rather than psychology. • Need evidence to support beliefs. • Self-actualizers rare. • Practical applications.
  31. 31. Fourth Wave • Positive Psychology • Martin Seligman • Learned Optimism • Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi • Flow • Humanistic Psychology with empirical methods. • Practical applications for many, not just a few.

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