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Road to War


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Road to World War II

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Road to War

  1. 1. Road to War
  2. 2. Rise of Fascism  FDR knew that war may be inevitable in Europe  2/3 of Americans did not want another war, citing they did not agree with entry into WWI  Nye Report, 1934  Great Depression  US still had a general policy of neutrality
  3. 3. Japan  Japan invades China in 1937  Already occupied Manchuria (1931- 1932)  LON did not approve of Japan’s actions but could not do anything to stop them  Japan was not allowed to participate in the league for a year, and they decided to withdraw from the League!
  4. 4. Italy  Mussolini was encouraged by what Japan was doing  Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935  Italy had not received any colonies as part of the Versailles Treaty  Ethiopia was independent, but could not stop Italy from invasion  LON again not happy, but helpless
  5. 5. Hitler/Germany  Came to power due to poor conditions and large reaparations, also fear of Communism  Socialist or Nazi Party took over in 1933  Mein Kampf: Written by Hitler, discussed overturning territorial settlements of the Versailles Treaty, to restore a “German Fatherland”, and to annex much of Eastern Europe  First concentration camp opened in 1933
  6. 6. Appeasement  Policy from England and France to avoid war with Germany  Munich agreement in 1938 in which England and France agreed to allow Hitler to annex the Sudetenland  JFK, Why England Slept, 1940
  7. 7. Neville Chamberlain, Peace for Our Time, Sept. 30, 1938  “The settlement of the Czechoslovakian problem, which has now been achieved is, in my view, only the prelude to a larger settlement in which all Europe may find peace.”  “We regard the agreement signed last night….as symbolic of the desire of our two peoples never to go to war with one another again.”  Chamberlain treated like a hero
  8. 8. Isolationism in the 1930’s  Very uninvolved in this decade  Formal recognition of Soviet Union in 1933  Good Neighbor Policy: US renounced the use of military force and armed intervention in the Western Hemisphere  What factors led to public support for non-intervention internationally?
  9. 9. Neutrality Act  1935 act that prevented a recurrence of events of WWI  Imposed an embargo on arms trading with countries at war  Declared that American citizens traveling on ships were doing so at their own risk  Banned loans to bullying countries  Cash and carry: purchases of non-military goods from US would have to be paid for in cash, and picked up on own ships if at war  Protested by many; esp. America First Committee
  10. 10. America First Committee  Hundreds of thousands of members  Led by Charles Lindbergh, Henry Ford, Father Coughlin  Dissolved after Pearl Harbor
  11. 11. WWII Begins  Germany expands into Austria, Czechoslovakia  Then comes the Munich meeting: failure! Hitler decides to expand anyway through force  Hitler now moving towards Poland  Aug. 1939: Hitler signs a non-aggression pact with Soviets  This assured Germany that they would not have a two-front war
  12. 12. WWII Begins  Poland invaded by Germany on Sept. 1, 1939  Blitzkrieg, the world has never seen anything like it!   Sept. 3, 1939, Britain and France declare war on Germany, WWII officially begins  “Phony War,” Allies wait  German attacks continue on May 10, 1940  Scandinavia, Belgium, Netherlands  Occupied Paris by June of 1940  Axis Powers formed in same month
  13. 13. Sudetenland
  14. 14. Nazi troops in Warsaw, Sept. 1939 Wielun, Poland on Sept. 1, 1939
  15. 15. Maginot Line
  16. 16. US Reaction  Looked at for our reaction  FDR declared neutrality on Sept. 5, 1939  By April 1940, Germany had defeated Poland and Denmark  Then, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg  Even France by June 1940  Only Britain is left  Churchill is desperate for help
  17. 17. At this point…some action!  FDR created the National Defense Advisory Commission and Council of National Defense in 1940  Built military bases on British possessions in the Atlantic  Ended neutrality by doing this!  Congress increased defense spending and had a peacetime draft  Selective Service & Training Act
  18. 18. Election of 1940
  19. 19. Lend-Lease Act  After winning election of 1940  President had power to lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of arms and other equipment whose defense was considered vital to the security of the US  When Germany invaded the Soviets in 1941, they expanded the program to them
  20. 20. Four Freedoms Speech  FDR’s State of the Union speech; Jan. 1941  Four fundamental freedoms that people everywhere should enjoy  Freedom of speech  Freedom of worship  Freedom from want  Freedom from fear  Became a basis for war aims  An attempt to gain public support
  21. 21. Atlantic Charter  FDR and Churchill  Off coast of Newfoundland  Ideological foundation of the Western cause  Similar to Fourteen Points in that it:  Called for economic collaboration  Guarantees of political stability  Free trade, national self-determination, collective security