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Counterculture of the 1960s

New Left, Free Speech, Hippies, Woodstock, etc.

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Counterculture of the 1960s

  1. 1. The Counterculture Ch. 23.3 (pp. 777-781)
  2. 2. Counterculture: Notes • Define/Explain – Counterculture – Sexual Revolution – Woodstock – Altamont • What social changes were promoted by the counterculture (make a list)? • How did music both reflect & contribute to the change of this era?
  3. 3. ‘50s vs. ‘60s
  4. 4. 1950s • Conformity • Nine-to-five jobs • Corporate world/businessmen • Neatly dressed • Flannel suits • Military power 1960s • “Flower Power” • Long hair & outrageous clothing • Rejection of regimented life • Bright colors & beads • Rejection of restriction • Challenged authority
  5. 5. The Beatles
  6. 6. A Time of Change • Counterculture—Valued youth, spontaneity, & individuality • Hippies • Promoted peace, love, & freedom • New styles of dress, music, & freer attitudes towards sex • Recreational use of drugs • “Generation Gap” • Lack of understanding & communication between generations
  7. 7. A Time of Change • Baby boom after WWII led to enormous generation • College attendance levels were increased drastically – College campuses bred change • Culture catered to them – Music producers, clothing designers, colleges, even politicians
  8. 8. A Time of Change • Student Movements & the New Left • Various liberal groups began to identify w/ blacks’ struggle against oppressive controls & laws – Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) • 1st meeting in Port Huron, Michigan, 1962 – Led by Tom Hayden • Called for university decisions to be made through participatory democracy – Give students a voice • Those who supported Hayden’s ideas were known as the New Left
  9. 9. A Time of Change • 1st major protest took place on Berkeley campus of U. of California, 1964 – Called their cause the “Free Speech Movement” • By the mid-1960s protest spread across the country – Protested a variety of rules: drinking, dorm visits by the opposite sex, political speech, greater voice in gov’t of universities • Only grew as Vietnam heightened
  10. 10. A Time of Change • Eventually the SDS splintered into various groups – Most radical=“The Weathermen” • Embraced violence & vandalism in attacks on American institutions • Acts of the Weathermen discredited the early idealism of the New Left – Bob Dylan, “Subterranean Homesick Blues”
  11. 11. Counterculture • Protests of New Left went hand in hand w/ new counterculture – Rebellious styles of dress, music, drug use, & for some communal living – Hippies & flower children • Embraced folk music of Bob Dylan & Joan Baez
  12. 12. Hippies in America • Similar movement started in UK in 1964-1965 • Popularized in America in 1967 – Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park in January • Protested new CA law that banned LSD – Prelude to “Summer of Love” • Hippie culture hub was Haight-Ashbury neighborhood • Greenwich Village in NYC was also a hub
  13. 13. Sixties Style • Women – Long, free hair – Loose fitting dresses • Men – Long hair, beards – *Read sidebar on hair on p. 779 – Rejection of the suit & tie – Blue jeans, cotton shirts, simple garments • Ponchos from S. America • Dashikis from Africa • Jewelry made by Native Americans • Painted buses, cars, & bodies • Pop art reflected Hippie culture – Warhol & Lichtenstein
  14. 14. Sixties Style • Op Art – Andy Warhol • Appeared they were created by artists under the influence of psychedelic drugs • Bright colors, optical illusions
  15. 15. The Sexual Revolution • Rejection of traditional restrictions • Sex should be separated from ties to family life • New living patterns; communes, unmarried couples • Open discussion of sexual subjects in mainstream media • 1962 bestseller, “Sex & the Single Girl,” by Helen Gurley Brown • 1966 report on scientific studies of sexuality, “Human Sexual Response,” by William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson • 1972, “The Joy of Sex,” by Alex Comfort
  16. 16. The Drug Scene • Psychedelic drugs • Cause brain to act abnormally • Hallucinations, altered perceptions of reality • Drug use was more widespread, esp. marijuana • Researchers at Harvard (Leary & Alpert) involved students in research using LSD
  17. 17. The Drug Scene • Overdoses & addictions • Janis Joplin, age 27, 1970 • Jim Morrison, age 27, 1971 • Jimi Hendrix, age 27, 1970
  18. 18. Music • Revolution started by Rock & Roll of ‘50s • Revival of folk music – Bob Dylan & Joan Baez • British Invasion – “Beatlemania” begins in 1964 – Rolling Stones – The Who
  19. 19. Woodstock • August of 1969 • Up to 500K spectators • Rural up-state NY • “3 Days of Peace & Music” • Joan Baez, Arlo Guthrie, Santana, CCR, Grateful Dead, Janis Joplin, The Who, Jefferson Airplane • Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young • The Band, Jimi Hendrix • Lots of rain • Overcrowded, lack of facilities, but peaceful
  20. 20. Altamont • East of San Francisco • December of 1969 • Rolling Stones, Santana, Jefferson Airplane • Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young • 300K+ • Hell’s Angels hired as security • Paid $500 of beer? • Fights broke out • 4 deaths, 4 births, lots of injuries, lots of property damage • Soured “Love Generation” – Contradictory to “peace & love” message
  21. 21. NOTES • Define/Explain – Counterculture – Sexual Revolution – Woodstock – Altamont • What social changes were promoted by the counterculture (make a list)? • How did music both reflect & contribute to the change of this era?

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