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  1. 1. Verbs Like the sun , verbs are the energy of the sentence. They are often, but not always found at the center of the sentence. A sentence cannot exist without them .
  2. 2. Here are three kinds of verbs you should know: Action Verbs Linking Verbs Helping verbs
  3. 3. Main Verbs and Helping Verbs: <ul><li>A verb phrase consists of at least one main verb and one or more helping verbs. A helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb ) helps the main verb express action or a state of being. </li></ul>is leaving
  4. 4. Besides of all forms of the verb be , the following verbs can be used as helping verbs: <ul><li>can </li></ul><ul><li>could </li></ul><ul><li>did </li></ul><ul><li>do </li></ul><ul><li>does </li></ul><ul><li>had </li></ul><ul><li>has </li></ul><ul><li>have </li></ul><ul><li>may </li></ul><ul><li>might </li></ul><ul><li>must </li></ul><ul><li>shall </li></ul><ul><li>should </li></ul><ul><li>will </li></ul><ul><li>would </li></ul>
  5. 5. Notice how the helping verbs work together with the main verbs to form complete verb phrases . <ul><li>Would he like some help? </li></ul><ul><li>You should have offered sooner. </li></ul><ul><li>We shall probably be finished in an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>She had always been thinking of her future. </li></ul><ul><li>Has my sister played her new CD for you? </li></ul><ul><li>She shouldn’t have borrowed that necklace. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Action Verbs vs. Linking Verbs <ul><li>An action verb expresses either physical or mental action : </li></ul><ul><li>The audience cheered the lead actors. </li></ul><ul><li>The children hoped for sunshine. </li></ul><ul><li>A linking verb connects the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The answer is correct. </li></ul><ul><li>The winners are happy . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Linking Verbs: <ul><li>The most commonly used linking verbs are forms of the verb to be: </li></ul><ul><li>be shall be should be </li></ul><ul><li>being will be would be </li></ul><ul><li>am has been can be </li></ul><ul><li>is have been could be </li></ul><ul><li>are had been should have been </li></ul><ul><li>was shall have been would have been </li></ul><ul><li>were will have been could have been </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other frequently used linking verbs: <ul><li>appear grow seem stay </li></ul><ul><li>become look smell taste </li></ul><ul><li>feel remain sound turn </li></ul><ul><li>Linking or action ? </li></ul><ul><li>The wet dog smelled horrible. </li></ul><ul><li>The dog smelled the baked bread. </li></ul><ul><li>The chef tasted the casserole. </li></ul><ul><li>The casserole tasted strange. </li></ul>
  9. 9. more practice… <ul><li>Even be is not always a linking verb. Sometimes be expresses a state of being and is followed only by an adverb. </li></ul><ul><li>I was there. </li></ul><ul><li>To be a linking verb , the verb must be followed by a subject complement —a noun or a pronoun that names the subject or an adjective that describes the subject. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Subject Complements… (wouldn’t exist without linking verbs) <ul><li>She is my cousin. </li></ul><ul><li>This chocolate smells wonderful. </li></ul><ul><li>This tadpole will become a frog. </li></ul><ul><li>The captain could be she. </li></ul><ul><li>Is she talented? </li></ul><ul><li>The players looked tired and dirty. </li></ul><ul><li>Alvin has grown very tall. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Transitive Verbs <ul><li>A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place or thing. The action passes from the doer – the subject - to the receiver of the action. Words that receive the action of a transitive verb are called objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Jon mailed the package. </li></ul><ul><li>When will Neil ring the bell? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Intransitive Verbs <ul><li>An intransitive verb expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver, or object. </li></ul><ul><li>Last Saturday we stayed inside. </li></ul><ul><li>The children ate quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The crowd cheered. </li></ul><ul><li>When she told her story, my, how we laughed! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transitive or Intransitive? <ul><li>Carrie waved her arm. </li></ul><ul><li>Carrie waved quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The plane landed on the runway. </li></ul><ul><li>She lifted the box. </li></ul><ul><li>Does Sheila write poetry? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we value your judgment? </li></ul><ul><li>The speaker arrived late. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Can you make sentences for the following patterns? What kind of verb is this? What kind of verb is this?