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The phrase

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The phrase

  1. 1. The Phrase <ul><li>A phrase is a group of related words. It does NOT create a sentence. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Kinds of Phrases <ul><li>Verb phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositional phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverb phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appositive phrase </li></ul><ul><li>also coming up… VERBAL phrases… </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Verb Phrase <ul><li>A verb phrase consists of at least one main verb and one or more helping verbs. A helping verb (also called an auxiliary verb ) helps the main verb express action or a state of being. </li></ul>is leaving
  4. 4. Besides of all forms of the verb be , the following verbs can be used as helping verbs:
  5. 5. Notice how the helping verbs work together with the main verbs to form complete verb phrases . <ul><li>Would you like some soup? </li></ul><ul><li>You should have offered sooner. </li></ul><ul><li>We shall probably be finished in an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>She was always thinking of her future. </li></ul><ul><li>Has my sister shown you her newest painting? </li></ul><ul><li>She shouldn’t have borrowed that necklace. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Prepositional Phrase… <ul><li>… is a group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun (the OP ). </li></ul><ul><li>in my hair </li></ul><ul><li>on the floor </li></ul><ul><li>next to the tree </li></ul><ul><li>beyond the forest </li></ul><ul><li>beneath the bridge </li></ul><ul><li>according to my mother </li></ul>
  7. 7. The anatomy (pattern) of a Prepositional Phrase: <ul><li>(with a friend) </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>(with my parents) </li></ul>OP OP
  8. 8. other possibilities are… <ul><li>(to me) </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>( Because of the very fun lesson) </li></ul>OP OP
  9. 9. Identifying kinds of prepositional phrases: Prepositional Phrase Adjective Phrase Adverb Phrase
  10. 10. ADJECTIVE PHRASES <ul><li>Definition : a prepositional phrase used as an adjective . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The boy with red hair is sitting next to me. </li></ul><ul><li>The girl sat next to the wall with windows </li></ul>
  11. 11. ADJECTIVE PHRASES… <ul><li>1. answer the questions: “ which one ?” or “ what kind ?” </li></ul><ul><li>2. always come after the nouns they modify </li></ul><ul><li>3. are ALWAYS after a subject </li></ul><ul><li>4. never begin a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>5. never come right after a verb </li></ul>
  12. 12. Find the ADJECTIVE PHRASES in the following sentences: <ul><li>The man in the story had no friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was the man in the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was a friend to Marley. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge hated charity of any kind. </li></ul><ul><li>Marley became a ghost with clanking chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ANSWERS: <ul><li>The man in the story had no friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was the man in the story . </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge was a friend to Marley . </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge hated charity of any kind . </li></ul><ul><li>Marley became a ghost with clanking chains . </li></ul><ul><li>Marley frightened Scrooge when he came to visit. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Find the ADJECTIVE PHRASES in the following sentences: <ul><li>During the night, a fire truck came down my street. </li></ul><ul><li>A fire truck came down my street during the night. </li></ul><ul><li>Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might. </li></ul>
  15. 15. ANSWERS: <ul><li>During the night, a fire truck came down my street. </li></ul><ul><li>A fire truck came down my street during the night. </li></ul><ul><li>Sid dropped his pencil on the sidewalk. </li></ul><ul><li>The cat in the tree suddenly meowed with all its might. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Find the ADJECTIVE PHRASES in the following sentences: <ul><li>Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>In a flash, the twins were transported to another world. </li></ul><ul><li>The short man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first. </li></ul><ul><li>The twins sat down and wondered where they were. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ANSWERS: <ul><li>Sandy didn’t know about the computer experiment in the lab . </li></ul><ul><li>In a flash, the twins were transported to another world. </li></ul><ul><li>The small man in the wilderness seemed afraid of the twins at first. </li></ul><ul><li>The twins sat down and wondered where they were. </li></ul>
  18. 18. ADVERB PHRASES <ul><li>Definition : a prepositional phrase used as an adverb . </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I sat with Sally at the seashore . </li></ul><ul><li>We fished for hours . </li></ul><ul><li>I dropped my coke can into the water . </li></ul><ul><li>In the spring I go to the beach . </li></ul>
  19. 19. The truth about adverb phrases: They… <ul><li>… can begin a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>2. …will not immediately follow the subject </li></ul><ul><li>3. …can follow VERBS , ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES (and modify them) </li></ul><ul><li>4. …answer questions like: “ when ?” “ where ?” “ why ?” “ how ?” </li></ul>
  20. 20. THINK LOGICALLY… <ul><li>There are only two kinds of prepositional phrases : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADJECTIVE and ADVERB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If a phrase is not ADJECTIVE , then it must be ADVERB ! </li></ul>
  21. 21. Find the adverb phrases: <ul><li>For many years, Scrooge and Marley were business partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge. </li></ul><ul><li>Bob had very little heat while he worked. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ANSWERS: <ul><li>For many years , Scrooge and Marley were business partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge ran his business in a miserly way . </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Cratchit worked for Scrooge . </li></ul><ul><li>Bob had very little heat while he worked. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrooge and Marley had been partners for many years . </li></ul>
  23. 23. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases: <ul><li>When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept by his bed to listen to music. </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you wish upon a star, your dreams come true.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. ANSWERS: <ul><li>When my dad was young, he had a little transistor radio that he kept by his bed to listen to music . </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you wish upon a star , your dreams come true.” </li></ul>
  25. 25. More Practice finding Prepositional Phrases: <ul><li>What’s the matter with my clothes? </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Since last May, you have worn those same jeans for days and days. </li></ul><ul><li>With a little bit of luck, you will get to go to the mall. </li></ul>
  26. 26. ANSWERS: <ul><li>What’s the matter with my clothes ? </li></ul><ul><li>In the middle of the floor was a pile of dirty clothes . </li></ul><ul><li>While you clean up this mess, I will go to the store and buy some new clothes. </li></ul><ul><li>Since last May , you have worn those same jeans for days and days . </li></ul><ul><li>With a little bit of luck , you will get to go to the mall. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Appositive Phrase <ul><li>First you must know what an appositive is…. </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINITION : An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or explain it. </li></ul><ul><li>It works mostly like this: </li></ul><ul><li>Barack Obama , the president , spoke to the graduating class. </li></ul><ul><li>Barack Obama = president (appositive) </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Appositive Phrase <ul><li>… is centered around a noun </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, a boy in my class , sits next to me. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>B. …renames another noun in the main sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob is renamed with boy . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>… can be removed from the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob sat next to me. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Appositive Phrase <ul><li>D. ...will be surrounded by commas 99% of the time. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my friend , is nice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My friend Bob is nice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>E. …will most likely come after the noun it renames. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my best friend , is nice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A friend at all times, Bob is always there. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[Sometimes, in rare occasions, it comes before the noun.] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Appositive Phrase <ul><li>F. …will not begin with a pronoun like “ who ,” “ which ,” “ whose ,” “ that ,” etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The boy who sits next to me is Bob. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[No appositive in the above sentence.] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>G. … may have a pronoun + verb later in the phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my friend who lives in LA , is nice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>H. …will not begin with a verb form. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The boy calling out my name is Bob. [Not an appositive!] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. The Appositive Phrase <ul><li>F. …will not begin with a pronoun like “ who ,” “ which ,” “ whose ,” “ that ,” etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The boy who sits next to me is Bob. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[No appositive in the above sentence.] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>G. … may have a pronoun + verb later in the phrase </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bob, my friend who lives in LA , is nice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>H. …will not begin with a verb form. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The boy calling out my name is Bob. [Not an appositive!] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. The Appositive Phrase Find the appositives/ appositive phrases in the following sentences… <ul><li>My best friend Mona lives down the street. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeremy, the boy next door, is moving to Hawaii. </li></ul><ul><li>The man who came to dinner is my uncle. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Jo, the girl who likes sushi, is sitting over there. </li></ul><ul><li>My brother, who eats all day, never gains weight. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Appositive Phrase Find the phrases in the following sentences… <ul><li>Excellent athletes, the WA 7th grade boys and girls basketball teams, both had winning seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Before Monday, please type your English paper again. </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Barber, a seventh grade English teacher, is an avid reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Your next meeting will take place in Mr. Lee’s room. </li></ul><ul><li>We went to Woodstock last Christmas. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Appositive Phrase Find the appositive phrases in the following sentences… <ul><li>Mack Sennett, the movie producer, gave us the Keystone Kops . </li></ul><ul><li>He also introduced America to an English film comic, Charlie Chaplin. </li></ul><ul><li>One of American’s best female comics, Mae West made movies with W.C. Fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Buster Keaton, another silent movie comedian, was called the Great Stoneface. </li></ul><ul><li>Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, a famous pair of fools, made many movies together. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever seen Richard Pryor, the comedian and movie star? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Verbal Phrases <ul><li>These are verb forms that no longer act like verbs . </li></ul><ul><li>Find more information on these in the next presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>GERUND PARITCIPLE IN FINI TIVE </li></ul>

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