Lecture Notes: The Gulf War lasted from August 2, 1990 to February 28, 1991
The war began with Iraq and Kuwait. Iraq is located in the Middle East in between Asia and Africa. Iraq is approximately in the center of the Middle East between Iran and Saudi Arabia. Kuwait is wedged between Southern Iraq and Northern Saudi Arabia.
The scenario leading to war: South of Iraq lies Kuwait, holder of 1/10th of the world’s oil supply. Main ideas: Saddam Hussein, dictator of Iraq, was angry with Kuwait for selling oil at low prices, thus keeping Iraq from being able to compete. Iraq was deeply in debt to Kuwait after the war with Iran. Hussein also had complained to OPEC that Kuwait was slant drilling for oil into Iraq’s borders.
Main ideas: After having supported Iraq in it’s war with Iran, the Iraqi dictator was sure that the US would not intervene. The US had not initially reacted to Iraq’s threats to Kuwait because US leaders felt that they could control the dictator and keep him from getting out of hand. After the invasion, President Bush declares that the invasion “will not stand”.
Main ideas: Prior to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, the Arab leaders had spoken with US leaders concerning Hussein’s threats, but they were convinced that the conflict would be solved without a war. Arab leaders had believed that Kuwait’s emir would give Iraq what it wanted. After the invasion, the Saudi leaders agreed to the US using military force to remove Iraq from Kuwait. This was an unexpected move since Saudis usually preferred to handle their own problems in the Middle East.
US AF fighter planes arrive in Saudi Arabia. The Arab leaders had given permission for the US to launch attacks from Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia feared that Hussein’s attack would not end with Kuwait; it was believed that his intentions were to control the whole of the Middle East, and therefore the lion’s share of the world’s oil.
Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf begins plans for an Army ground offensive
Knowing that working as separate entities was not productive toward the goal, CENTCOM ) Central Command combined planning with EUCOM (European Command), TRANSCOM (Transportation Command) and SPACECOM (Space Command) so that each entity would work together to provide a concentrated effort of support for the ground offensive known as ONE CORPS.
UN Security Council agrees that US may use “all means necessary” to remove Iraq from Kuwait. The UN set a date – January 15, 1991 – for Iraq to remove itself from Kuwait in order to avoid war.
After 6 hours of talks, Iraq and the US did not find a peaceful solution at the Geneva Peace Conference. Aziz, representing Iraq, refused to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. The US would accept nothing less to ensure peace. War was inevitable. The peace conference was to show the American people that the US was doing all it could to avoid war. Iraq threatens to attack Israel if US attacks Iraq.
Congress passed a resolution that authorizes the use of force in order to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi forces. The US may now invade Iraq at any time.
Iraq continues to refuse to remove forces from Kuwait in spite of warnings of force from US.
January 17th, Allied forces attack using AH-64 Apache helicopters attack Iraq using tank-destroying missiles, F 117 fighter jets, and Tomahawk Cruise Missiles shot from ships.
The first major ground battle of the Gulf War. Saddam Hussein attempted to lure Allied ground forces into strategic ground battles that would heavily damage the Allied resources. He bombed Saudi oil reserves, fired scud missiles toward Israel, and invaded Saudi Arabia, gathering his forces in Khafji, Saudi Arabia, effectively capturing the city. Allied forces refused to be manipulated, however, they did fight Iraqi forces in Khafji and liberated the city from Iraq. Iraq lost anywhere from 60-300 dead and 400 troops were taken prisoner by coalition forces. The coalition forces were from Quatari, the Saudi Arabian National Guard, and American forces.
As Tomahawk missiles fire on Iraqi airfields, battleships in the Persian Gulf fire on Iraqi targets in Kuwait. VII Corps, with the arrival of the 3rd Armored Division of the US, continues it’s attack on the Iraqi Republican Guard. The VII Corps that met the Republican Guard head-on was made up of the 1st and 3rd Armored Divisions, the 2nd Armored Cavalry Division, the 11th Aviation Brigade, and the 1st Infantry Division.
The Amiriyah shelter, believed to be an Iraqi intelligence command shelter was targeted and bombed. Unfortunately, the shelter was housing around 600 Iraqi civilians and not members of Iraqi Intelligence command. Approximately 400 civilians were killed and over 200 were injured. Most of the victims were women and children. This incident caused major changes in strategic bombing campaigns as well as huge embarrassment for the US. The incident also incited increase US protests to the war.
On the 15th, Radio Baghdad indicated that Iraq might be willing to withdraw from Kuwait, but President Bush renounced the broadcast as a “cruel hoax”. VII Corps moves into final attack position on the 16th of February.
February 18th, two ships, the USS Tripoli and the USS Princeton strike Iraqi-laid mines sustaining damage while maintaining the two craft. February 19th, the 1st Cavalry Division move up the Wadi al Batin dry river valley, but are driven back losing 12 soldiers – 3 dead and 9 wounded. Afterwards on the 21st, CIA and Pentagon officials meet at the Whitehouse where President Bush declares February 23rd as the new deadline for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait and other invaded areas.
Iraqi military headquarters are attacked by US Stealth bombers while Army special forces move into the heart of Iraq. VII Corps attack is stepped up and 101stAirborn takes out a major Iraqi highway. The 1st Marine Division clashed with Iraqi forces on the ground as scud missiles strike US barracks, killing almost 30 American soldiers and wounding around 100 soldiers. The fighting becomes too much for those Iraqi forces in Kuwait City and they begin to flee.
A major and decisive tank battle was fought by allied forces consisting of British and American troop of armored divisions in an area East of Al Busayyah on the 73rd North-South coordinate. VII Corps was involved in this striking collision between allied forces and the Iraqi Republican Guard.
After suffering heavy casualties with more than 100, 000 soldiers dead, Iraqi soldiers were captured, surrendered, or deserting by the hundreds of thousands. Allied forces had lost less than 200. The ceasefire is officially in effect.
After one final attack on a an Iraqi Division as it fled Hammurabi, General Norman Schwarzkopf sat in a tent with Iraqi generals in a tent in Safwan to discuss the terms of ending the war. Here, Iraq agreed to five demands made by the allies; 1. Iraq will end all military action against Kuwait and other Gulf war targets 2. Iraq will rescind its annexation of Kuwait 3. Iraq will disclose any information of stored biological and/or chemical weaponry it holds 4. Iraq will release all international prisoners 5. Iraq will accept responsibility for the casualties and damages done during its occupation of Kuwait.
Most POWs released by Iraq on March 5th
The US and allies celebrate the victory over Iraq
The Gulf War
The Gulf War<br />A Timeline: August 2, 1990 – February 28, 1991<br />