Title IX<br />"No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”<br />- 34 C.F.R. Part 106<br />Kyla Ballentine<br />August 2009<br />
What is Title IX?<br />Title IX is a law that states that any person (boys and girls alike) cannot be excluded from participation in or benefits of any educational program or activity that is receiving federal funding assistance. <br />Title IX was enacted into law on June 23, 1972, by President Richard Nixon.<br />Since Title IX was passed 35 years ago, it has been the subject of over 20 proposed amendments, reviews, Supreme Court cases and other political actions. Nixon.<br />Most recent lawsuit awarded more than $4 million to two female coaches who accused the college where they were previously employed of sex discrimination.<br />Besides athletics Title IX relates to nine other areas which include :<br />Access to Higher Education,<br />Career Education, <br />Education for Pregnant and Parenting Students, <br />Employment, <br />Learning Environment, <br />Math and Science, <br />Sexual Harassment, <br />Standardized Testing and Technology.<br />
Sports Prior to Title IX<br />Primary physical activities offered to girls included cheerleading and square-dancing, sports that had historically been perceived as feminine.<br />During the 1971-72 school year, prior to the initiation of Title IX, there were 294,015 girls participating in high school athletics, compared to 3,666,917 boys. <br />Only 29,972 of those girls participated at the varsity level.<br />Virtually no scholarship opportunities available for furthering a woman’s education. <br />Source: Title IX Athletic Statistics, American Association of University Women (AAUW). <br />
Sports After Title IX<br />Participation in sports by females increased 940% from 294,015 girls in 1972 to 3,057,266 in 2007.<br />In 1996, girls constituted 39%of high school athletes, compared to 7.5% in 1971.<br />$1,809,500 was given to female athletes in Division I in 2005-06 school year.<br />Source: TitleIXinfo.com & Title IX Athletic Statistics, American Association of University Women (AAUW). <br />
Hypothesis<br />Girls’ participation in high school sports, and the number of sports offered has increased by at least 50% since the adoption of Title IX.<br />Girls would be more willing to participating in a sport if it were co-ed. <br />
Method<br />I conducted survey of a rather small sampling of people.<br />The questions were in relation to whether or not the person had participated in athletics during high school.<br />Responses were gathered in written and verbal form then compiled in a chart so I could easily decipher the results.<br />Survey Questions<br /><ul><li>Are you male or female?
Did you/do you participate in sports in high school? (If no, please skip to question 4).
If you did not participate in a sport, was it because a particular sport was not offered?
Would you have been more or less likely to participate in a sport if it were co-ed?
Do you think co-ed sports teams are fair?</li></li></ul><li>Results – hypothesis 1<br />My hypothesis that girls’ participation in sports increased by 50% was proven correct, by a large margin.<br />Source: Women's Sports Foundation. Play Fair: A Title IX Playbook for Victory<br />
Results – hypothesis 2<br />My hypothesis that girls would be more willing to participating in a sport if it were co-ed, was not entirely proven correct. I was expecting most girls to say they would be more willing to participate, but the results were mostly neutral, meaning the girl would have had the same interested in participation either way.<br />
Conclusion<br />If I were to do this research again, I would:<br />Interview more people.<br />More focus toward a survey of students both currently participating in high school sports, and past students who did or did not participate. <br />Elaborate and add more specific questions about which sports people would rather play and why.<br />