Poetry Prose Poetry may or may notuse rhyme, as ordinarilyit does not in blank andfree verse.Prose does not makeuse of rhyme at all.Both prose and poetry can stir theemotion as well as the intellect.Both can convey information as well aspleasure.
Poetry Prose It expresses a strongemotion or a loftythought compressedand intense utterance.The main purpose ofpoetry is to providepleasure and delight.It appeals to theemotion andimagination. It is generallyconcerned with thepresentation of an idea,concept or point of viewin a more ordinary andleisurely manner.The purpose of prose isto furnish information,instruction, orenlightenment.It appeals to theintellect.
I. POETRY Poetry may be described as rhythmicimaginative language expressinginvention, thought, imagination,taste, passion, and insight of thehuman soul. Its purpose is “enthrallment.”
William Wordsworth describes it as“the spontaneous overflow ofpowerful feelings.”
Characteristics of PoetryA. Rhythm1. Meter ( Organized Rhythm )2. Rhyme and other “Sound Devices”B. Imagery1. Figures of Speech2. SymbolsC. Sense or Meaning
A.RHYTHM Rhythm is the regular recurrence ofstressed and unstressed, long andshort, or high-pitched and low-pitched syllables creating a pattern inthe lines of a poem. This gives the poem its melodiousquality and makes it grand, solemnand majestic; sonorous and full; slowand mournful; rapid and light, etc.
1. Meter ( Organized Rhythm ) Meter is the measured pattern orgrouping of syllables, called metricfoot, according to accent and length. A group of metric feet forms a poeticline or verse. A group of poetic lines or verses iscalled stanza.
According to the placement ofaccent, there is a variety ofpatterns or feet of which the fourbasics are. The Iamb ( Iambic foot ) The Anapest ( Anapestic foot ) The Trochus ( Trochaic foot ) The Dactyl ( Dactylic foot )
a. IAMB The Iambic foot consists of anunaccented syllable followed by anaccented syllable ( X / )Ex.x / x / x / x / x /The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.-Gray,“Elegy in a Country Churchyard”
b. Anapest The Anapestic foot consists of twounaccented syllables followed by anaccented syllable. ( X X / )Ex.x x / x x /Did you fall in the race?x x / x x /Did you faint in the spurt-Robins, “The Best”
c. Trochus The Trochaic foot consists of an accentedsyllable followed by an unaccented syllable.( / x )Ex./ x / x / xUp the airy mountain/ x / x /Down the rushy glen-Allingham, “The Fairies”
d. Dactyl The Dactylic foot consists of anaccented syllable followed by twounaccented syllables. ( / x x )Ex./ x x / x x / x x / x x / x x / xThis is the forest primeval, the murmuring pines and the hemlocks.-Longfellow, “Evangeline”
According to the number of feet in apoetic line, the principal verselengths are: monometer, dimeter,trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter,hexameter, heptameter, octameter,and nonameter. Scansion is the system by which apoem is described according to itsmetrical structure by identifying itsaccents and verse lengths.
Free verse is the natural flow ofcadenced rhythms as created by thepoet Blank verse is unrhymed verse
2. Rhyme and other “sounddevices” Rhyme is the regular recurrence ofsimilar sounds usually at the end oflines or also within one line. The pattern or sequence in which therhyme words occur in a stanza orpoem is called the rhyme scheme. To find the rhyme scheme, the sameletter of the alphabet is usuallyassigned to each similar sound in astanza.
B. Imagery Imagery refers to expressionsevocative of objects of sensuousappeal. It may be in the form ofdirect description or may befigurative, which latter involves theuse of figures of speech andsymbols.
C. Sense or Meaning A poem must say something. It must enlighten, reveal a truth,open new vistas, give newperceptions, enable to understandthe world around us more deeply,and see things beyond the physicalsenses.
How do we try to understand apoem? When reading a poem, it would helpmuch to look up the meaning ofunfamiliar words; to keep in mindthat a poem is never purely literal;and to remember that the poetmeans and feels more than what heactually says.
Imagine yourself in the situation ofthe poet and try to see and feel ashe does, give free rein to yourimagination and feelings, and use allof your life experience to enlightenyou so that the poem can acquiremeaning for you.
Kinds of Poetry 1. Lyric 2. Narrative 3. Dramatic
Lyric Poetry It is the “utterance of the humanheart in poetic form.” It is describedas “brief and subjective, marked byimagination, melody and emotion,and creating a single unifiedexpression
Popular types of lyric poetry: 1. Simple lyric 2. Song 3. Sonnet 4. Elegy 5. Ode
Simple lyric includes those lyricalpoems that do not properly belongunder any of the other types oflyrics. Song is a short lyric poem which hasa particularly melodious quality andis intended primarily to be sung, orcan easily be set to music.
Sonnet is a lyric of fourteen lines with aformal rhyme scheme or pattern.Types:Italian or Petrarchan, named afterItalian poet Francesco Petrarch, consistsof an octave which develops the theme,followed by a sextet which recapitulatesthe idea. The octave has a rhyme schemeof abba abba and the sextet, cde cde orcdcdcd, or some other combination.
Sonnet 5(Francesco Petrarch)I find no peace, and all my war is done;I fear and hope, I burn and freeze likewise;I fly above the wind, yet cannot rise;And nought I have, yet all the world I seize on;That looseth, nor locketh, holdeth me in prison,And holds me not, yet can I’scape no wise;Nor lets me live, nor die, at my devise.And yet of death it giveth none occasion.Without eyes I see, and without tongue I plain:I wish to perish, yet I ask for health;I love another, and yet I hate myself;I feed in sorrow, and laugh in all my pain;Lo, thus displeaseth me both death and life,And my delight is causer of my grief.
English, Elizabethan orShakespearean Sonnet, named afterWilliam Shakespeare and QueenElizabeth I, is divided into threequatrains plus a couplet with arhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg.The idea is developed in the threequatrains, and is summarized andreinforced in the closing couplet.
Sonnet XXIX(William Shakespeare)When in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes,I all alone beweep my outcast state.And trouble deaf Heaven with my bootless criesAnd look upon myself, and curse my fate.Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,Featur’d like him, like him with friends possest,Desiring this man’s art and that man’s scopeWith what I most enjoy contented least;Yet in these thoughts myself almost despisingHaply I think on thee, and then my state(Like to the lark at break of day arisingFrom sullen earth) sings hymns at heaven’s gate;For thy sweet love remembered such wealth bringsThat then I scorn to change my state with kings.
Spenserian Sonnet, named afterthe English poet Edmund Spenser, isdivided into three quatrains and aclosing couplet with a rhyme schemeof abab bcbc cdcd ee.
Elegy is a lamentation or anexpression of mourning for the dead.By its very nature, the poem’s moodis solemn and sorrowful, yet itusually contains suggestions of hopeand faith to allay the sorrow. Ode is the most majestic type oflyric poetry. It is exalted in tone andexpresses lofty praise for someperson, event, object or idea. It iselaborately designed and is formal instructure and content.
Narrative Poetry It tells a story following a chronologyof events.Types:1. Ballad is a short simple narrativepoem composed to be sung, andaltered as it was orally transmittedfrom generation to generation until itwas written down much later.
2. Metrical Tale relates real orimaginary events in simple straightforward language. It can choosefrom a wide range of subjects,characters, life experiences,emotional situations, and mayproject a mood that is serious orlight. It is usually concerned withordinary events.
3. Metrical Romance is a long ramblinglove story in verse revolving around theadventures of knights and lords and theirhighborn ladies during the age of chivalry.Heavily flavored with romance, fantasticevents, supernatural occurrences, magicand the ideals of the medieval period suchas honor, truth, courage, justice, andreverence for woman, the story is oftenrich in allegory and permits a great play offancy and the conflict between the forcesof good and of evil.
4. Epic is a long majesticnarrative poem which tells of theexploits of a traditional hero and thedevelopment of a nation.Characteristics of an epic:-the story is broad in scope andtheme; its subject matter is often amixture of legend, history, myth,religion, and tradition
-the action is grand and on a hugescale, the supernatural element ishighly pronounced and thecharacters are larger-than-life (gods,demi-gods and highborn mortals)-the source of conflict involveselemental passions; the eventscenter on a prodigious struggle oreffort to achieve a great purpose orcarry out a great task againstpowerful forces
-the plot consists of numerousepisodes and sub-plots peopled bynumerous characters-the plot often begins in media resand the story is completed by aseries of flashbacks-the style is solemn and majestic inkeeping with the grandeur of thesubject matter
Dramatic Poetry It has elements that closely relate itto drama, either because it is writtenin some kind of dramatic form, oruses a dramatic technique. It mayalso suggest a story, but there ismore emphasis on character ratherthan on the narrative.
Forms of dramatic poetry:-Dramatic Monologue presents thespeech of a single character whoaddresses one or more persons whoare present and who are listening tothe speaker, but remain silent.-Soliloquy is a passage spoken by aspeaker in a poem or by a characterin a play, except that there is no onepresent to hear him.
-Character Sketch is a poem inwhich “ the writer is concerned lesswith matters of story, complete orimplied, than he is with arousingsympathy, antagonism, or merelyinterest for an individual.”