Fig. 6. SOA/BPM “divergence” to cover informal Business & IT Architectures
Introduction
Organisations have never been only...
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Karim Baïna (ENSIAS) poster at ICEIS'2013 informal/formal IS & Enterprise Architecture

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Organisations have never been only formal, functional, impersonal, even the most rigid bureaucracies have informal relations, groups based on elected affinities, on the circumvention of rules, or collective defense. Informal (badly named) is not a complementary resource that should be "formalised and rationalised", the form hits the formlessness which makes it live [1]. While formalising information systems is of great value to an organisation to clearly define roles & responsibilities, and standardize business processes, rules, services models, etc. However, generalising formalisation approaches to all information system perspectives or levels of granularity can inversely be fatal to the smooth running of a business, its management, and operation. The aim of this paper is to explore information systems formal-informal continuum, to understand its characteristics, patterns, anti-patterns, and equilibria.

Actually, No formal plan or description of a system can be complete [2]. The formal is best used for predictable & repeatable work that needs to be done efficiently and with little variance. Conversely, the informal is best applied against unpredictable events that arise outside the scope of the formal organisation and which need to be sensed and solved. Increasingly, pepole who need to do the solving need to be motivated outside the reward system, and collaborate across organisational boundaries. Every organisation must deal with both predictable and unpredictable work, that is why it is necessary to learn how and when to call on the logic, clarity and efficiency of the formal and balance it with the flexibility and speed of the social networks [3].

Moreover, informal information systems usually arise from restraints or inadequacies of the formal system. By filling in the gaps in the formal system, the informal system creates an added flexibility to the way in which the organisation functions. Ideally, the two systems should complement one another. However, unless managers monitor the interaction between the two systems to ensure that they are working together effectively, there is a danger in having the two systems [4].

The extent and nature of the informal have led some theorists to propose a metaphor comparing the organisation to an iceberg (figure 1), where the emergent part corresponds to the formal aspects (behavior related to the organisations scientific approach), while the submerged part, consists of individuals strategies, affective ties, coalitions of groups, power relation.

Duality between formal/informal information systems is not a simplistic binary polarity of information systems states, but a consideration of the possible levels of formalisation of information systems between the two limits: over-deformalisation and over-formalisation. Evaluation of this duality is closely related to the size and business of each organisation or part of organisation (department, business unit, etc.).

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Karim Baïna (ENSIAS) poster at ICEIS'2013 informal/formal IS & Enterprise Architecture

  1. 1. Fig. 6. SOA/BPM “divergence” to cover informal Business & IT Architectures Introduction Organisations have never been only formal, functional, impersonal, even the most rigid bureaucracies have informal relations, groups based on elected affinities, on the circumvention of rules, or collective defense. Informal (badly named) is not a complementary resource that should be "formalised and rationalised", the form hits the formlessness which makes it live [1]. While formalising information systems is of great value to an organisation to clearly define roles & responsibilities, and standardize business processes, rules, services models, etc. However, generalising formalisation approaches to all information system perspectives or levels of granularity can inversely be fatal to the smooth running of a business, its management, and operation. The aim of this paper is to explore information systems formal-informal continuum, to understand its characteristics, patterns, anti-patterns, and equilibria. Organisation, and Information Systems between formal and informal continuum, balance, patterns, and anti-patterns (*) KARIM BAÏNA Responsible of Alqualsadi Research Team on Enterprise Architecture ENSIAS, Université Mohammed V - Souissi, BP 713 Agdal - Rabat, Morocco baina@ensias.ma (*) Supported by EvA (vulgarisation of Enterprise Architecture) Project, no 002/ENSIAS/2011 of Université Mohammed V-Souissi References [1] Renaud, G. (1995). Le formel et l’informel : une tention créatrice continuelle. Théologiques, 3(1):129–152. [2] Schmidt, K. and Bannon, L. (1992). Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1:7–40. [3] Katzenbach, J. and Khan, Z. (2010). Leading Outside the Lines: How to Mobilize the Informal Organization, Energize Your Team, and Get Better Results. John Wiley & Sons. [4] Howarth, A. (2005). Information Systems Management, Cambridge International Diploma in Management at Higher Professional Level. Select Knowledge Limited. [5] Foudriat, M. (2007). Sociologie des organisations. Pearson Education France. 1. Informal - Formal an old new duality No formal plan or description of a system can be complete [2]. The formal is best used for predictable & repeatable work that needs to be done efficiently and with little variance. Conversely, the informal is best applied against unpredictable events that arise outside the scope of the formal organisation and which need to be sensed and solved. Increasingly, pepole who need to do the solving need to be motivated outside the reward system, and collaborate across organisational boundaries. Every organisation must deal with both predictable and unpredictable work, that is why it is necessary to learn how and when to call on the logic, clarity and efficiency of the formal and balance it with the flexibility and speed of the social networks [3]. Moreover, informal information systems usually arise from restraints or inadequacies of the formal system. By filling in the gaps in the formal system, the informal system creates an added flexibility to the way in which the organisation functions. Ideally, the two systems should complement one another. However, unless managers monitor the interaction between the two systems to ensure that they are working together effectively, there is a danger in having the two systems [4]. The extent and nature of the informal have led some theorists to propose a metaphor comparing the organisation to an iceberg (figure 1), where the emergent part corresponds to the formal aspects (behavior related to the organisations scientific approach), while the submerged part, consists of individuals strategies, affective ties, coalitions of groups, power relations [5]. 3. Informal–Formal analysis impact on some hot topics - Are EA Frameworks ready for informal EA : modelling, aligning, measuring, implementing ? (figure 5) - What should be SOA/BPM « ossification » safe IT Architecture solutions to cover informal Business Architectures processes/rules/organisations ? (figure 6) - What inexpected opportunities social computing will bring to new generation of integated information systems (cloud, embedded system, sensors networks, big data ...) ? Business Strategy IT Strategy Business Architecture - Processes/Rules - Information - Organisation/People - Location IT Architecture - Applications - Data - Technology Informal EA Informal Business & IT Architecture Organisation, Rules & Processes Fig. 2. Examples of deformalisation processes in organisations Fig. 5. Enterprise Architecture seen through the iceberg metaphor [6] Meijer, A. J. (2008). E-mail in government: Not post-bureaucratic but late-bureaucratic organizations. Government Information Quarterly, 25(3). [7] Stacey, R. (1992). Managing the Unknowable: Strategic Boundaries Between Order and Chaos in Organizations. Jossey-Bass Management Series. Jossey-Bass. [8] Karim Baïna, “Rationalism in scientific management : the dialectic between formal and informal”, ISKO-Maghreb'2012, http://fr.slideshare.net/kbaina/iskomaghreb2012 2. Informal - Formal : continuum, balance, patterns, and anti-patterns Duality between formal/informal information systems is not a simplistic binary polarity of information systems states, but a consideration of the possible levels of formalisation of information systems between the two limits: over-deformalisation and over- formalisation. Evaluation of this duality is closely related to the size and business of each organisation or part of organisation (department, business unit, etc.). Complementarity between formal and informal supports a kind of continuum which ensures the move from one to the other in a continuous way. If transition from informal to formal is insured by formalisation, the dual transition from formal to informal is provided by deformalisation. Figures 3 & 4 highlight informal/formal states semantics & correlations. Fig. 3. Correlation between dual systems in all states Fig. 4. Semantics of formal/informal states Fig. 1. Formal-Informal : Duality - Iceberg metaphor [6] [7] Source: agilebpm.wordpress.com

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