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  1. 1. Methodologies and tools for design and analysis of collaborative practices CS4458 CSCW Karen Kiely 0643564
  2. 2. Some definitions <ul><ul><li>Collaboration - where two or more people work together to a common goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative work practice -  practice used in collaborating with co-workers and partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology - the underlying theory and analysis of how research does or should proceed </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. PAPER 1   Mobile Phones for the next generation: Device designs for teenagers        Berg, S., Harper, R., Taylor, A.S (2003) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA, April 05 - 10, 2003)
  4. 4. The study <ul><ul><li>Exploring interactive features and potential form the mobile phone will take with the advent of 3G systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using ethnographic field studies to inform the design of a third generation mobile phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teenage mobile phone users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in &quot;gift-giving practices&quot; is used to form the design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early design concept based on the field study observations  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  The aim is to show how ethnographic studies offer a possible approach to how the 3G systems could be used more effectively and what services might be well-received by consumers </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3G wireless communication systems <ul><ul><li>Manufacturers keen to  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>utilise the new technology (e.g. bandwidth, connectivity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase sales in handsets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>     The 'Build and See' approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It isn't certain that committing financially to 3G will lead to increases in revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before committing to the costly 3G infrastructure manufacturers are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  testing features on so-called '2.5G'  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  exploring features, market/consumer needs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Field Study <ul><ul><li>Sixth form college in English suburban town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five month period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16-19 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Series of observations and follow-up interviews  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observations took place in and around the college area e.g. the cafeteria, hallways, parks near the school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews - six students: five girls, one boy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>                             - held weekly over ten weeks </li></ul><ul><li>                            - clarify the observations </li></ul><ul><li>                             - learn more about phone use at home                 </li></ul><ul><li>                            - students were given cameras, diaries etc.                                       </li></ul>
  7. 7. Findings of the field study <ul><ul><li>  Embodied meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text messages are an embodiment of something personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be re-read, stored and shared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>become &quot;tangible mementos&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One interviewee described phone as a 'memory box' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obligations of exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Series of messages described as </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>                - user offering something personal </li></ul><ul><li>                - offer is received in mutual show of solidarity </li></ul><ul><li>                - reciprocation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unspoken rules between giver and receiver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Findings of the field study <ul><ul><li>  Demonstration of social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phone-mediated exchanges leads to 'building of allegiances and cementing of social networks' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of a phone and coordination in texting 'demonstrates intimacy' </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By not replying to texts, tensions would be displayed between sender and recipient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sending free web-texts would be seen as cheap and unfair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The authors conclude that the mobile phone is essential for managing social relationships in teenagers' lives. They use the above points to inform the design of their device. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early design suggestions <ul><ul><li>  Increase significance of messages by allowing user to personalise message with meaningful information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Allow users to personalise and mark important or sentimental messages, adding their own information about it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Solidify group ties or sustain rivalries&quot; by allowing users to create a virtual labeled container to save messages into, which could be stored or shared with friends.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Simulate 3D space in the address book, with closer friends nearest the screen - similar to teenagers forming social ties with one another and keeping some in close physical proximity </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Design concept <ul><ul><li>Low-fidelity prototyping - paper models and Flash animations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback from interviews with twenty-two young people aged 15-25 ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed the design of one concept </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Paper's conclusions <ul><ul><li>Despite previous literature criticising ethnographic field studies as a means of informing design, the authors feel it is a valid method for design  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful to see how the technology being designed affects social activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographic field studies helped the authors design a device that supports participation in social exchange </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Paper 2   Usability and interaction design – new challenges for the Scandinavian tradition  Bodker, S., Sundblad, Y., (2008) Behaviour & Information Technology Vol. 27, No. 4, July–August 2008, 293–300
  13. 13. What is the Scandinavian tradition? <ul><ul><li>Workers influencing design  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation between workers and  researchers to help improve the work situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminal 'Utopia' project (1981-1985), where users were involved very early in the design process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involving users has now become the standard that developers work with </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The paper <ul><li>Nowadays we have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More decentralised and portable forms of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology that is present in home life and leisure  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>     as well as in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for participatory design in home, leisure and workplaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>This forms new challenges in a number of areas, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observational methods for intimate situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning and skill development outside work situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moving the focus of HCI from efficiency and towards experience </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. First generation HCI <ul><ul><li>Focus on usability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic usability testing </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Second generation HCI <ul><ul><li>Focus on groups working with a collection of applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participatory design workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual enquiry </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Third generation HCI? <ul><ul><li>Technology spreading from workplaces to homes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers propose a third 'wave' </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined in terms of what the second generation is not: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-purposeful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-rational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods are moving away from usability testing and towards early experimentation and design </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Examples (Illustrating the challenges HCI is facing)  <ul><ul><li>Multiplicity: mixes of new and old technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking isolated work situations: whiteboard device to send notes to other teachers on an archipelago  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc configuration: e.g. emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The individual in the collective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototyping for understanding problems and possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing work and daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional workplaces, simulation etc. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Paper's conclusions <ul><ul><li>There is an importance attached to focusing on multiple users and the experience of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-design evaluation is not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though there are new forms of interaction, Scandinavian tradition is needed as much as before </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Overall conclusions <ul><li>Paper one told us that ethnographic field studies can be useful when designing. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper two explained that the third generation of human-computer interaction may move away from usability testing and towards &quot;early experimentation and design&quot; which is similar to what was discussed in paper one (2.5G). </li></ul><ul><li>Paper two's praise of cooperative design is fitting.  </li></ul><ul><li>Paper one uses cooperative evaluation in the second part of the paper </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>