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OPINION AND COMMON FALLACIES

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OPINION AND COMMON FALLACIES

  1. 1. OPINION AND COMMON FALLACIES Prepared by: MR. ANTONIO T. DELGADO Faculty, General De Jesus College
  2. 2. FOCUS QUESTIONS 1. What is opinion? 2. What is argument? What are its parts? 3. What are fallacies? 4. Why is it important to avoid fallacies in forming opinion? 2
  3. 3. OPINION ▪ It is a statement of judgment of a person about something in the world. ▪ It is a statement of judgment that is in need of further justification. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. “ Walang maling opinyon. 5
  6. 6. “ Akala mo lang wala… 6
  7. 7. “ …pero meron! 7
  8. 8. “ “Opinyon ko na dapat mamatay na tayong lahat.”
  9. 9. “ 9
  10. 10. ARGUMENT ▪ It is a group of statements that serve to support a conclusion. ▪ It is made up of a claim (the conclusion of an argument) and premises (the reasons used to support the conclusion). 10
  11. 11. ARGUMENT ▪ Not all arguments are good arguments. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. FALLACIES ▪ We call fake arguments “fallacies”. ▪ Fallacies are groups of statements that appear to be arguments, but fail to support the conclusion. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. AD BACULUM This occurs when one appeals to force or the threat of force to bring about the acceptance of a conclusion.
  19. 19. COMMON FALLACIES 19
  20. 20. 1. AD HOMINEM This occurs when an author attacks his opponent instead of his opponent’s argument.
  21. 21. Ad Hominem ▪ Trina thinks guns should be outlawed but Trina doesn’t go to church, so we shouldn’t listen to her. 21
  22. 22. 2. AD POPULUM It attempts to prove an argument as correct simply because many people believe it to be so.
  23. 23. Ad Populum/ Bandwagon ▪ 80% of people are for the death penalty, therefore, the death penalty is moral. 27
  24. 24. 28
  25. 25. 3. APPEAL TO AUTHORITY The author claims his argument is right because someone famous or powerful supports it.
  26. 26. Appeal to Authority ▪ We should change the drinking age because Einstein believed that 18 was the proper drinking age. 30
  27. 27. 4. BEGGING THE QUESTION This happens when the author’s premise and conclusion say the same thing.
  28. 28. Begging the Question ▪ Fashion magazines don’t hurt women’s self-esteem because women’s confidence is intact after reading the magazine. 32
  29. 29. 5. FALSE DICHOTOMY This fallacy rests on the assumption that there are only two possible solutions.
  30. 30. False Dichotomy ▪ The teacher gives too many 90’s and therefore must be fired because grade inflation is unfair to other students. 34
  31. 31. 6. HASTY GENERALIZATION It occurs when the proponent uses too small of a sample size to support a sweeping generalization.
  32. 32. Hasty Generalization ▪ Sally couldn’t find any cute clothes at the boutique and neither could Maura, so the boutique doesn’t have any cute clothes. 36
  33. 33. 37
  34. 34. 38
  35. 35. 7. POST HOC This fallacy assumes that correlation equals causation.
  36. 36. Post Hoc/ False Cause ▪ The chess team gets better grades than the basketball team, therefore playing chess makes you smarter than playing basketball. 40
  37. 37. 8. MISSING THE POINT It occurs when the premise of the argument supports a specific conclusion but not the one the author draws.
  38. 38. Missing the Point ▪ Antidepressants are overly prescribed which is dangerous, so they should clearly be made illegal. 42
  39. 39. 9. SPOTLIGHT FALLACY It occurs when the author assumes that the cases that receive the most publicity are the most common cases.
  40. 40. Spotlight Fallacy ▪ 90% of news reports talk about negative events. Therefore, it follows that 90% of events that occur in the real world are negative. 44
  41. 41. 20,000 Number of extrajudicial killings according to human rights groups 45
  42. 42. 46
  43. 43. “This is the front-page photo in the Philippine Daily Inquirer’s July 24, 2016 issue showing pedicab driver Michael Siaron’s lifeless body being cradled in a Pieta-like pose by his partner. Siaron, the newspaper claimed,* was executed by the police in the course of President Duterte’s war against illegal drugs. The photo went viral on the internet, with Western newspapers publishing it on their own front pages. 47
  44. 44. “ It turns out now, after more than a year of police investigation, that the pedicab driver was killed by a drug syndicate’s assassin, one Nesty Santiago, who was also responsible for five other killings. The unique scratches – like fingerprints – on the bullets that murdered Siaron matched with the gun used by the killer, recovered when he was killed in December. 48
  45. 45. 10. STRAW MAN The author puts forth one of his opponent’s weaker, less central arguments forward and destroys it, while acting like this argument is the crux of the issue.
  46. 46. Straw Man ▪ My opponent wants to increase teachers’ pay but studies have shown that professors with tenure don’t work as hard at their job to improve themselves. 50
  47. 47. EVALUATION 1. What is opinion? 2. What is argument? What are its parts? 3. What are fallacies? 4. Why is it important to avoid fallacies in forming opinion? 51
  48. 48. “ “Everyone is entitled to his own opinion...”
  49. 49. 53
  50. 50. 54
  51. 51. THANKS! ANY QUESTIONS? PowerPoint presentations are available at: ▪ www.facebook.com/GJCphilo
  52. 52. REFERENCES 1. Skoskiewicz, M. (May 22, 2011). 10 Common Logical Fallacies. Retrieved May 17, 2018, from https://www.myguruedge.com/our- thinking/myguru-blog/bid/214477/10-common- logical-fallacies 56

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