By the end of our time together you will be able to define what an inference is. You will walk away with ways in which to assess the inferences of students. To help you feel more comfortable assessing your students in your classroom we will also practice using the various assessments for inferencing.
Inferencing involves drawing conclusions or making an interpretation that is not explictly stated in a text. Readers take information presented in a text in the form of diagrams, illustrations, and text and then combine it with their own background knowledge and experiences. Inferencing allows the reader to grasp the deeper meaning of a text. Sometimes readers questions are only answered through inferences.
Nonverbal- when you look at someone and interpret their mood based on actions Pictures/Illustrations- Picture clues help to gain meaning especially when there is a word the read does not know. Word meaning- Harvey & Goudvis (2007) suggest readers need to take what they know and gather clues in the text to crack the meaning of vocabulary. They need to consider the context to understand what has been read. Anaphora-associations between words in which one word or phrase is being used to replace another. Example: John followed Sally. He got a flat tire. The inference is that John is the he. Connectives- relates two events to each other most commonly through words such as because and then or but although however, etc. Example: I went to the store, and then I went to the park. Slot-filling- fill in important missing aspects of the given situation such as agent, object, instrument, experiencer, source, goal. Example: character motivation, causes, circumstances
Anecdotal records as written records that teachers keeps on individual children based on their ongoing observations and interactions with the child. Anecdotal records safeguard against the limitations of memory. When making anecdotal notes be sure to include the date, time and location of the activity the student was engaged in. Anecdotal records can be written in journals, charts, index cards or sticky labels. Remember it is important to revisit the anecdotal records over time to look for patterns in students behaviors, attitudes and strategies.
Consists of categories that have been predetermined for specific diagnostic purposes.
This can provide valuable assessment data for both the teacher and child. The student’s work sample can show more than his or her inferencing skills including writing skills, interests, habits, motivation, style, etc. This is an opportunity to review actual work the child has done. The samples can be chosen by the student to represent his or her best work, most improved. With a collection of work it will show the student’s development over time. Portfolios can be added to conferences with students, parents, other teachers, literacy specialists and administrators. Samples and portfolios may also include pictures or videos.
All participants would rotate through the stations. This would be a good time to split up grade levels. Music could be played signaling it is time to wrap up the station and move to the next. Station 1: There is a video a student working on a think aloud of an appropriate level text. The student is focusing on inferencing and describing the process using sticky notes. Station 2: Audio tapes with head phones are provided for participants or they can listen to the tape as a group. After completing the checklist the group discusses what each hear from the tape and observations the teacher may draw. Station 3: A children’s book the teachers could use with their students is provided to read. Blank graphic organizers are also provided.
BETWEEN THE LINES: INFERENCING
By the end of this session… <ul><li>Define inferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to assess students’ inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Practice assessing </li></ul>
Anecdotal Records <ul><li>Anecdotal records- written records that teachers keep on individual children based on their ongoing observations of and interactions with them (Cobb, 2003; Cunningham & Allington, 2003; Flippo, 2003; Vacca, et al., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Anecdotal Records.doc </li></ul>
Samples and Portfolios <ul><li>(Flippo, 2003, Irwin, 2007, Peregoy & Boyle, 2005, Vacca, et al., 2006) </li></ul>
Practice <ul><li>Station 1: View the video and write your own anecdotal record. </li></ul><ul><li>Station 2: Listen to the book club discuss their inference making. Use the checklist to record what you hear </li></ul><ul><li>Station 3: Read the paragraphs provided. Complete your own graphic organizer about the inferences you created. Then discuss as a group your inferences. Would you place this in your portfolio? Why or why not? </li></ul>
References: <ul><li>Beers, K. (2003). When kids can’t read: What teachers can do. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Block, C.C., Gambrell, L.B., & Pressley, M. (Eds.). (2002). Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, DE: JosseyBass. </li></ul><ul><li>Cunningham, P.M., & Allington, R.L. (2003). Classrooms that work: They can all read and </li></ul><ul><li>write (3 rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Harvey, S., & Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension for understanding and engagement (2 nd ed.) Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Irwin, J.W. (2007). Teaching reading comprehension processes (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Kispal, A. (2008). Effective teaching of inference skills for reading: Literature Review. Research Report DCSF-RR031. National Foundation for Educational Research , Retrieved from ERIC database. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Miller, D. (2002). Reading with meaning: Teaching comprehension in the primary grades . Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Peregory, S.F., & Boyle, O.F. (2005). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for K-12 teachers (4 th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. </li></ul>