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Diminishing Marginal Returns

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- 1. Theory of Firms<br />Costs, Revenues and Objectives<br />
- 2. Theory of Firms<br />Profit:<br />Difference between Revenue and Cost<br />Π = TR - TC<br />
- 3. Theory of Firms<br />Revenue = amount received from the sale of goods or services<br />TR = P x Q<br />
- 4. Theory of Firms<br />Total Cost is the sum of all costs – fixed, variable and semi-fixed<br />Fixed Costs – do NOT depend on quantity produced- Rent, Rates, Insurance, etc.<br />Variable Costs –vary directly with the amount produced – raw materials<br />Semi–Fixed Costs - may vary with output but not directly – some types of labour, energy costs<br />
- 5. Theory of Firms<br />Factor Costs:<br />Labour – wages/salaries<br />Land – rent<br />Capital – interest<br />Enterprise - profit<br />
- 6. Theory of Firms<br />Average Cost = Total cost divided by the number of units produced<br />AC = TC/Q<br />AVC = TVC/Q<br />AFC = TFC/Q<br />
- 7. Theory of Firms<br />Marginal Cost<br />The cost of producing one extra or one less unit of output<br />MC = TCn units – TCn-1 / Q<br />If TC of 100 units = £500 and TC of producing 101 units is £505, MC = £5.00<br />Important concept<br />
- 8. Theory of Firms<br />Short and Long run:<br />Short run – some factors fixed and cannot be increased/reduced<br />Long Run – time taken to vary all factors of production<br />Short and long run vary in all industries:<br />
- 9. Theory of Firms<br />Railways – short run –’easy’ to increase labour, long lead times for new rolling stock – 5 years?<br />Supermarkets – short run – can buy new shelving, hire staff, etc but opening of new stores takes several years<br />Local Builder – short run buys new tools, hires assistant; long run – purchasing a new van – a couple of months?<br />
- 10. Theory of Firms<br />Diminishing Marginal Returns<br />Assumptions – some factors fixed (e.g. capital and land)<br />Adding variable factor – (labour) <br />Total Product<br />Average Product – TP / Q variable factor (Qv)<br />Marginal Product ΔTP/ΔQv<br />
- 11. Theory of Firms<br />Increasing the variable factor:<br />TP rises at first, slows then falls<br />AP rises at first then starts to fall<br />MP rises, then falls, cuts AP at highest point of AP, cuts horizontal axis at point where TP starts to fall<br />
- 12. Theory of Firms<br />Objectives of firms:<br />Profit maximisation <br />Profit satisficing<br />Long term survival<br />Share price maximisation<br />Revenue maximisation<br />Brand loyalty<br />Expansion and market dominance<br />

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