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Struct frameproject


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Description of the process for converting unstructured FrameMaker files to structured FrameMaker files

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Struct frameproject

  1. 1. April 23, 2007 Migrating from Unstructured to Structured FrameMaker Documents Kevin Chilton Topic Page Purpose 11 Benefits 11 Migration Process 141.0 Purpose To combine FrameMaker’s powerful features with structured authoring to create a sophisticated workflow. Within this new authoring environment, you can automate formatting, create, edit, and publish XML-based content, and enforce required document structures.2.0 Benefits Creating an XML-based workflow improves the consistency and organization of your files, enables reuse of content, and can help reduce publishing costs.2.1 Enforcing consistent organization In unstructured FrameMaker, a template specifies which formatting components are available in your files. Along with the template, you provide usage rules. For example, you might specify that a simple proposal should have the following content sequence: • Proposal title • Executive summary • Project description • Schedule • Cost You cannot enforce this required sequence in an unstructured template. Instead, you create a style guide, which authors are supposed to read and comply with. To verify that a particular document follows the rules in the style guide, a human editor must read the proposal and verify that each section is in the proper order. 11
  2. 2. Migrating from Unstructured to Structured FrameMaker Documents XML technology lets you describe the required organization of the content with structure rules. A file that follows these rules is valid. and you can use software to validate your file and verify that it conforms to the rules you’ve established, so that instead of a human reading the file to check its organization, the software can do the validation work. In addition to built-in validation features, structured FrameMaker also provides guided editing, which supports authors by displaying only the allowed elements as they are working. This means you can now enforce your document organization through the template (rather than by human review). For a proposal document, the structure rule would read as follows: Title,ExecSummary,ProjectDescription,Cost,Schedule This rule indicates that a syntax reference section must contain one Title, followed by one ExecSummary, and so on. You can then specify further structure inside each element. For example, you can require that the ExecSummary element contains a title and a paragraph: Title,Para A document that omits one of these items, or that uses a different order for the elements, is not allowed. FrameMaker’s structure view indicates in real-time where required content is missing, as shown in the following figure.12
  3. 3. April 23, 20072.2 Automating and enforcing formatting In structured FrameMaker, authors do not work with formatting components such as paragraph and character tags. Instead, they insert elements and element content into their documents. Document formatting is applied automatically based on formatting information that is embedded in the structured template. The structured template is made up of two components: formatting information and structure definitions. The structure definitions are stored in an element definition document (EDD), which in turn references formatting information. Element formatting is context-sensitive; that is, a single element can appear with different formatting in different structured positions. A single ListItem element, for example, can replace half a dozen (or more) paragraph tags. As you position information in the structure, the context-sensitive formatting is updated immediately based on the element position.2.3 Using metadata for versioning At the document level, metadata provides keywords and other descriptions of a document. You can also use metadata to identify information that is unique for a particular version of a deliverable. This technique lets you use a single set of source documents to deliver highly customized information for each version. Consider, for example, the problem of customized software development. If your company customizes its products for each client, you need a way to identify what information belongs to each client. Using metadata, you can specify which clients each topic applies to. When you are ready to deliver the information, you filter based on the metadata to create the appropriate deliverables. 13
  4. 4. Migrating from Unstructured to Structured FrameMaker Documents 2.4 Publishing to multiple output formats In a structured FrameMaker environment, you can take advantage of FrameMaker’s powerful print and PDF capabilities, and then generate XML to create other outputs, such as HTML and online help formats. You can also continue to use single-sourcing workflows that are based on unstructured conversion tools. 2.5 Supporting content reuse and exchange with XML XML lets you move information from one authoring tool to another without losing information. You can develop information in FrameMaker, save it out to XML, and then open the XML files in another tool. Perhaps a technical writing group (which uses FrameMaker) needs to share information with a training group (which uses an XML-based learning management system). You can use XML to exchange content between two otherwise incompatible applications. 2.6 Reducing localization cost When content is localized, the desktop publishing component is a significant part of the cost. A publishing workflow built on XML and structured authoring lets you automate much of the publishing effort, so you can greatly reduce the ongoing costs associated with localization. 2.7 Simplifying database publishing Instead of connecting directly into a database, you can use XML as an intermediate format. From the database, you generate an XML file that contains the information you want to publish. On the FrameMaker side, you set up an import application that provides formatting information for the XML elements. You then open the XML file in FrameMaker, and the database information is formatted automatically. 2.8 Complying with required document structures The ability to enforce structure based on explicit rules improves consistency for any document. In regulated industries, the ability to verify that the required structures are being followed is critical. If an organization is required to comply with specific structures due to government or industry standards, structured authoring can help ensure that the documents conform. 3.0 Migration Process To migrate from unstructured to structured documents entails these stages: • Producing a conversion table from an existing unstructured FrameMaker document (see “Producing a conversion table from an existing unstructured FrameMaker document” on page 15).14
  5. 5. April 23, 2007 • Stucturing an Unstructured Document (see “Stucturing an Unstructured Document” on page 16). • Creating an Element Definition Document (EDD) (see “Creating an Element Definition Document (EDD)” on page 16). • Testing the EDD (see “Testing Element Definition Document (EDD)” on page 17). • Applying the EDD to unstructred documents (see “Apply Element Definition Document (EDD) to Unstructured Documents” on page 18). You can also add structure to multiple documents or a book file with these methods: • Adding stucture to multiple documents with a conversion table (see “Adding Stucture to Multiple Documents” on page 18). • Importing element definitions into a book (see “Importing Element definitions into a Book” on page 19).3.1 Producing a conversion table from an existing unstructured FrameMakerdocument You can set up a conversion table to help end users automate the task of adding structure to documents. The conversion table uses paragraph and character formats to identify which document objects to wrap in elements, and element tags to identify which child elements to wrap in parent elements. A user wraps all of a document’s contents in one move by applying a structure command to the document and referring to one of your conversion tables. To generate an initial conversion table 1 Select File Developer Tools Generate Conversion Table in a document with objects you want to structure. 2 Select Generate New Conversion Table in the dialog box and click Generate. The software looks through the flows on body pages in the document and compiles a list of every object that can be structured. For each object, it gives the object type and the format tag used in the document (if the object has a format), and maps the object to an element. The element tag is the same as the format tag, or if the object does not have a format, the element tag is a default name such as CELL or BODY. If necessary, FrameMaker removes parentheses and other characters to create an element tag that is valid. The initial conversion table gives you a first pass through the document, identifying objects to wrap in elements. It does not identify child elements to wrap in parent elements—you need to add those rules to the table yourself. 15
  6. 6. Migrating from Unstructured to Structured FrameMaker Documents Note: The conversion table only picks up the catalog tags actually embedded in the document, NOT all those in the catalog. For more details see Appendix A Conversion Tables for Adding Structure to Documents in the Structure Application Developer’s Guide. 3.2 Stucturing an Unstructured Document To structure an unstructured document 1 Open your unstructured document and your conversion table document. 2 Select select File Utilities Structure Current Document. 3 Select the conversion table document from the drop-down list and click Add Structure FrameMaker creates a new, untitled, structured document. Keep refining and testing your conversion rules until you are satisfied with the document produced. You can add tags to the conversion rules table by typing them or by scanning additional documents. To add tags automatically 1 Make sure that the conversion rules table is open. Open the file that contains additional formatting components. 2 Select File Structure Tools Generate Conversion Table. 3 Select Update Conversion Table and select your conversion rules document in the drop-down list. 4 Click Generate. FrameMaker scans the second sample document and adds additional formatting components to the end of the conversion rules table. 3.3 Creating an Element Definition Document (EDD) An element definition document (EDD) contains the structure rules, attribute definitions, and format rules for all of the elements in a group of FrameMaker documents.16
  7. 7. April 23, 2007 To create an Element Definition Document (EDD) carry out this step: Select File Developer Tools Export Element Catalog as EDD in your stuctured file. FrameMaker opens a new, untitled, EDD document. For detailed information on creating and EDD see Part II Working with an EDD in the Structure Application Developer’s Guide.3.4 Testing Element Definition Document (EDD) To test the EDD, you import it into a document and then verify that you can create the structure you expect. At this point, the document will not have any formatting, but you can verify that the structure is working as expected. To verify that the structure is working as expected 1 Create a new, blank,document by selecting File New Document, and then click Portrait. 2 Make sure that the EDD and the new document file are both open. 3 In the new document, select File Import Element Definitions. 4 In the Import from Document drop-down list, select the proposal EDD and click Import. 5 The Element Definitions are now available by clicking the icon to open the Element Catalog: 17
  8. 8. Migrating from Unstructured to Structured FrameMaker Documents Note: The Element catalog lists all the eleements you can use at the current location in the document. 3.5 Apply Element Definition Document (EDD) to Unstructured Documents To apply the EDD to an unstructured document 1 Make sure that the EDD and the unstructured document file are both open. 2 In the unstructured document, select File Import Element Definitions. 3 In the Import from Document drop-down list, select the proposal EDD and click Import. Note: Importing element definitions into an unstructured document does not automatically apply structure. This must be done manually by the author (under research - articles in Communicator). 3.6 Adding Stucture to Multiple Documents You can add structure to one or more documents without having to open them by applying a conversion table. The documents should either be the only contents of a single folder or all have a filename extension that is unique in a single folder. To apply a conversion table to a group of documents 1 Open the file with the conversion table. 2 Select File Utilities Structure Documents to open the Conversion Table Document pop-up menu.18
  9. 9. April 23, 2007 3 Select the file with the conversion table (i.e., current). 4 In the Input Unstructured Files area, specify the location and filename extension of the documents you are adding structure to.If you need to look for the location, click Browse and navigate to it. Note: The filename extension is optional. You can leave the Suffix text box empty to add structure to all the documents in the folder. 5 In the Output Structured Files area,specify a location for the structured versions of the documents. If you need to look for the location, click Browseand navigate to it. 6 To overwrite an existing batch of structured files in the output-folder, select Allow Existing Files to Be Overwritten. 7 Click Add Structure. When you open the structured documents, you can import element definitions into them.3.7 Importing Element definitions into a Book You can import element definitions into a book file and into any files contained in the book.The definitions.are stored in the Element Catalog for the book and the other files. When you import e1ement definitions into a book, FrameMaker replaces any existing definitions in the book and all its files with the new definitions and re-applies format rules from the definitions. It also validates the book file. 19
  10. 10. Migrating from Unstructured to Structured FrameMaker Documents To import element definitions into a book 1 Open the want to update and the template, document, or book with the definitions to import. 2 In the book window, select the files into which you want to import clement definitions, and select File lmport Element Definitions. 3 Choose the template or document from the Import from Document pop-up menu which lists all open, saved documents and books. 4 To remove format rule overrides in the files, select While Updating, Remove Format Overrides. 5 Click Import. FrameMaker updates the element definitions in the book file and in the files listed in the Update scroll list.20