Chapter 3
The Human Brain
Why study the brain?
“If the human brain were so simple
that we could understand it, we would
be so simple that we couldn’t.”
-Emerson Pugh, Th...
The Brain
• Brainstem
• Responsible for automatic
survival functions
**Am I going to eat it?
Have sex with it? Kill it?
• ...
Techniques to examine
functions of the brain
1. Remove part of
the brain & see
what effect it has
on behavior
2. Examine h...
3. Stimulate the
brain
4. Record brain
activity
The Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord
 The job of the spinal cord
 Damage to the spinal cord
 http://youtu.be/oPerfpx...
Neurons: Their Anatomy and Function
 Neuron anatomy
• Soma
• Axon
• Myelin
• Dendrites
 Communication ~ neurons
• The sy...
Activity
The Dollar Bill
Drop
Our Divided Brains
• Corpus collosum – large
bundle of neural fibers
(myelinated axons, or white
matter) connecting the tw...
Hemispheric Specialization
LEFT
Symbolic thinking
(Language)
Detail
Literal meaning
RIGHT
Spatial perception
Overall pictu...
LEFT HANDED CLASS IDEAS
**33 million people are left handed
**25% more likely to have accidents, 51% if working with machi...
QUESTION EXPERIMENT
**Pick a partner
**Take turns asking/recording answers
**What are the results?
The Limbic System
• Hypothalamus, pituitary, am
ygdala, and hippocampus all
deal with basic
drives, emotions, and
memory
•...
Charles Whitman
August 1st, 1966
The Cerebral Cortex
• Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex
• Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex
• Occipital (Back...
The Cerebral Cortex
 Aphasia
 impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage
either to Broca’s area (i...
Paul Broca [1800’s]
• Suggested localization
Language Areas
• Broca  Expression
• Wernicke 
Comprehension and
reception
• Aphasias
LEFT HEMISPHERE
Memory Formation
Emotions
Decisions (making/reasoning)
Personality
The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located
deep to the Fr...
PHINEAS GAGE
Phineas Gage was a railroad worker in the 19th century living in
Cavendish, Vermont. One of his jobs was to s...
Remarkably, Gage never lost consciousness, or quickly regained it
(there is still some debate), suffered little to no pain...
CONCUSSION QUESTION
**Have you ever had or do you know someone who has had a
concussion?
**What kind of physiological or c...
Parietal Lobe
Senses and integrated senses
Spatial awareness and
perception
The Parietal Lobe of the brain
is located deep...
Stroke Victim w/ Parietal Lobe Damage
http://youtu.be/VdIC-x6UZg0
Occipital Lobe
Its primary function is the
processing, integration, interpretati
on, etc. of VISION and visual
stimuli.
Th...
Temporal Lobe
Hearing
Organization/Comprehension of
language
Information Retrieval
Memory/Memory Formation
The Temporal Lo...
Brain Plasticity
• The ability of the brain to reorganize neural
pathways based on new experiences
• Persistent functional...
• Over Chapters
One, Two and
Three
• Bring scantron
882-E & #2 pencil
Study
• Unit One Exam on
Tuesday- 9/10
• Multiple Ch...
Psyc 2301 chapter three powerpoint(2)
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Psyc 2301 chapter three powerpoint(2)

  1. 1. Chapter 3 The Human Brain Why study the brain?
  2. 2. “If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn’t.” -Emerson Pugh, The Biological Origin of Human Values (1977)
  3. 3. The Brain • Brainstem • Responsible for automatic survival functions **Am I going to eat it? Have sex with it? Kill it? • Medulla • Controls heartbeat and breathing
  4. 4. Techniques to examine functions of the brain 1. Remove part of the brain & see what effect it has on behavior 2. Examine humans who have suffered brain damage
  5. 5. 3. Stimulate the brain 4. Record brain activity
  6. 6. The Central Nervous System: Spinal Cord  The job of the spinal cord  Damage to the spinal cord  http://youtu.be/oPerfpxYJ1U
  7. 7. Neurons: Their Anatomy and Function  Neuron anatomy • Soma • Axon • Myelin • Dendrites  Communication ~ neurons • The synapse  Neurotransmitter  To fire on not to fire • Synaptic plasticity
  8. 8. Activity The Dollar Bill Drop
  9. 9. Our Divided Brains • Corpus collosum – large bundle of neural fibers (myelinated axons, or white matter) connecting the two hemispheres
  10. 10. Hemispheric Specialization LEFT Symbolic thinking (Language) Detail Literal meaning RIGHT Spatial perception Overall picture Context, metaphor
  11. 11. LEFT HANDED CLASS IDEAS **33 million people are left handed **25% more likely to have accidents, 51% if working with machinery **What could be done in the classroom that would make it easier for students who are left handed to take notes or tests. **What about the mouse on computers? The mouse is actually made for people who are right handed. How adaptable must a left handed person become in order not to be frustrated by using a right handed mouse?
  12. 12. QUESTION EXPERIMENT **Pick a partner **Take turns asking/recording answers **What are the results?
  13. 13. The Limbic System • Hypothalamus, pituitary, am ygdala, and hippocampus all deal with basic drives, emotions, and memory • Hippocampus  Memory processing • Amygdala  Aggression (fight) and fear (flight) • Hypothalamus  Hunger, thirst, body temperature, pleasure; regulates pituitary gland (hormones)
  14. 14. Charles Whitman August 1st, 1966
  15. 15. The Cerebral Cortex • Frontal (Forehead to top)  Motor Cortex • Parietal (Top to rear)  Sensory Cortex • Occipital (Back)  Visual Cortex • Temporal (Above ears)  Auditory Cortex
  16. 16. The Cerebral Cortex  Aphasia  impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding)  Broca’s Area  an area of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech  Wernicke’s Area  an area of the left temporal lobe involved in language comprehension and expression
  17. 17. Paul Broca [1800’s] • Suggested localization
  18. 18. Language Areas • Broca  Expression • Wernicke  Comprehension and reception • Aphasias LEFT HEMISPHERE
  19. 19. Memory Formation Emotions Decisions (making/reasoning) Personality The Frontal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Frontal Bone of the skull •Frontal Lobe
  20. 20. PHINEAS GAGE Phineas Gage was a railroad worker in the 19th century living in Cavendish, Vermont. One of his jobs was to set off explosive charges in large rock in order to break them into smaller pieces. On one of these instances, the detonation occurred prior to his expectations, resulting in a 42 inch long, 1.2 inch wide, metal rod to be blown right up through his skull and out the top. The rod entered his skull below his left cheek bone and exited after passing through the anterior frontal lobe of his brain. Frontal
  21. 21. Remarkably, Gage never lost consciousness, or quickly regained it (there is still some debate), suffered little to no pain, and was awake and alert when he reached a doctor approximately 45 minutes later. He had a normal pulse and normal vision, and following a short period of rest, returned to work several days later. However, he was not unaffected by this accident.
  22. 22. CONCUSSION QUESTION **Have you ever had or do you know someone who has had a concussion? **What kind of physiological or cognitive effects occurred? **What brain areas can you think of that are affected when a football player falls and hits the back of their head?
  23. 23. Parietal Lobe Senses and integrated senses Spatial awareness and perception The Parietal Lobe of the brain is located deep to the Parietal Bone of the skull.
  24. 24. Stroke Victim w/ Parietal Lobe Damage http://youtu.be/VdIC-x6UZg0
  25. 25. Occipital Lobe Its primary function is the processing, integration, interpretati on, etc. of VISION and visual stimuli. The Occipital Lobe of the Brain is located deep to the Occipital Bone of the Skull
  26. 26. Temporal Lobe Hearing Organization/Comprehension of language Information Retrieval Memory/Memory Formation The Temporal Lobes are located on the sides of the brain, deep to the Temporal Bones of the skull.
  27. 27. Brain Plasticity • The ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences • Persistent functional changes in the brain represent new knowledge • Brain injuries
  28. 28. • Over Chapters One, Two and Three • Bring scantron 882-E & #2 pencil Study • Unit One Exam on Tuesday- 9/10 • Multiple Choice & True/False • 50 questions

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