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Chapter 7: The Presidency

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Chapter 7: The Presidency

  1. 1. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
  2. 2. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Presidency CHAPTER7
  3. 3. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President and the Constitution Explain the framers’ decision to bestow the president with real powers despite their concerns about potential abuses. The Evolution of the Presidency Outline the changes that have led to the expansion of presidential powers. The Informal Powers of the President Establish how the “power to persuade” expands presidential power beyond the Constitution. Key Objectives 7.1 7.3 7.2 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
  4. 4. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Roles of Modern Presidents Identify the duties and functions of modern presidents. Presidential Greatness Evaluate the qualities that contribute to presidential success or failure. Key Objectives 7.4 7.5 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
  5. 5. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President and the Constitution • The framers were ambivalent about the role of the executive branch under the Constitution • Constitutional Convention debates – Virginia Plan – New Jersey Plan • Compromise created an active executive Explain the framers’ decision to bestow the president with real powers despite their concerns about potential abuses. 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  6. 6. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman A Powerful Executive • The experience under the Articles of Confederation suggested the need for a strong executive • Under the Articles, the Continental Congress lacked the power and the ability to respond quickly to emergencies 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  7. 7. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Debate at the Convention • Virginia Plan: – Called for a separate executive, elected by Congress for an unspecified term of office but ineligible for re-election • New Jersey Plan – A multi-person executive, elected by Congress for a single term but could be recalled by state governors • Connecticut Compromise 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  8. 8. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Article II and Ratification • What was this “presidency?” – What sorts of power would its occupants have? – How long would this person serve? – What would stop this person from gaining too much power and becoming another tyrant? • The office described by Article II was unfamiliar – The unitary nature and strong powers roused fears 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  9. 9. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Article II and Ratification (cont’d) • Anti-Federalists claimed the office of the president was akin to a monarch • Hamilton countered with Federalist No. 69 – The President’s term is only 4 years – The President can be impeached – While the President can veto acts of Congress, his veto is subject to Congressional override 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  10. 10. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Evolution of the Presidency • The scope of presidential powers has been a function of the men who have served in the position and used those powers. • The overall evolution of the presidency has been toward ever-greater powers, Outline the changes that have led to the expansion of presidential powers. 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  11. 11. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Models of Presidential Power –Whig Model –Stewardship Model –The Modern Presidency –The Institutional Presidency 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  12. 12. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Whigs • There were a number of reasons why it made sense that the presidency was not at the center of nineteenth-century American government – Agrarian economy – The US was not a world power – Campaigning was party-centered – Presidents viewed their job as limited to those powers expressed in Article II 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  13. 13. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Stewardship • Under this model, the President’s power began to expand – Economy changed from agricultural to industrial – The US position in global affairs expanded – Presidents’ view of presidential powers became one with no restrictions on presidential authority except what was strictly forbidden in the Constitution 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  14. 14. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Modern Presidents • Since FDR, the president is expected to be more active in – Leading the nation – Creating innovative solutions, giving aid and comfort to citizens in time of need – Maintaining a healthy, growing economy – Protecting the nation from foreign and domestic threats 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  15. 15. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Institutional Changes • The structure of the executive has changed to reflect the president’s changed role • The institutional presidency emerges. The presidency is viewed as a working collectivity, a massive network of staff, analysts, and advisers with the president as its head. • President’s cabinet rises in stature 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  16. 16. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Institutional Presidency • Executive Office of the President (EOP) • National Security Council (NSC) • Office of Management & Budget (OMB) • Council of Economic Advisors (CEA) • White House Staff –Chief of Staff as gatekeeper 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  17. 17. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Consequences of the Institutional Presidency • Presidents have become central figures in the policy process • Internal conflict emerges within the executive office between political advisors and policy advisors • The relationship between the public and the president has become more distant 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  18. 18. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Transformation of the Vice Presidency • For most of history, the job of the vice president was mostly ceremonial • Because of increased global tensions, the role expanded – Carter/Mondale – Clinton/Gore – Bush/Cheney – Obama/Biden 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  19. 19. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Informal Powers of the President • The real power is the result of combining personality and political skills • The president’s informal tools include – The prestige of the office – Personal charm and bargaining skills – Others’ fear of retribution – The need for special favors Establish how the “power to persuade” expands presidential power beyond the Constitution. 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  20. 20. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Political Context • Early years-1830s – Personal relationships with elites was the key to presidential success • 1830s-late 1800s – Agreements with party bosses were required to achieve success • Early 1900s-1970s – Success was the result of bargaining with competing interests • Late 1900s through today – Forging a personal connection with the public is paramount for success 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  21. 21. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Ups and Downs of Presidential Approval Ratings 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  22. 22. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman First Ladies • Women have provided informal advice, advocated significant policy reform, undertaken a host of symbolic functions, and lobbied lawmakers and foreign dignitaries • Modern First ladies have also championed different policy causes 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  23. 23. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Roles of Modern Presidents • Presidents fulfill many important functions under the Constitution – Chief of State – Chief Legislator – Chief Diplomat – Commander in Chief – Chief Executive Identify the duties and functions of modern presidents. 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  24. 24. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief of State • As chief of state, the president participates in a variety of activities that are largely ceremonial in nature. • These activities provide public the opportunity to see and connect with its national leader. 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  25. 25. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief Legislator • Article II makes the executive branch responsible for implementing the will of the legislative branch • In keeping with the principle of checks and balances, presidents are also given legislative authority through the veto, the ability to recommend legislation and duty of informing Congress as to the “state of the union.” 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  26. 26. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Legislative Tools • The veto • The State of the Union address 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  27. 27. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  28. 28. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief Diplomat • Presidents are in charge of foreign affairs – United States v. Curtiss-Wright (1936), the president is the “sole organ” in conducting foreign affairs, and his powers are “exclusive” • Travel the globe, meeting with other leaders • Appoint and receive ambassadors • Negotiate and formalize treaties • Issue executive agreements 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  29. 29. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Commander in Chief • Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution appoints the president commander in chief of all American military forces, but Congress is charged with declaring wars (in Article I, Section 8) • War Powers Resolution 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  30. 30. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President as Chief Executive • The President appoints Cabinet members • The President can issue executive orders – Proclamations – National Security Directives – Presidential Decision Directives • Signing Statements • The Office of Management and Budget helps formulate a budget 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  31. 31. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The President’s Other Roles • “Economist in Chief” • Moral Leadership? • Chief of Party 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  32. 32. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Two Presidencies • Presidents are often frustrated when it comes to domestic affairs, given the numerous actors and Congress’s ability to check presidential initiatives • Presidents will often turn to foreign policy matters later on in their tenure, likely due to frustration over the difficulties in advancing domestic policies 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  33. 33. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Presidential Greatness • Americans have developed a personal connection with their presidents for several reasons – The growing size and importance of the bureaucracy – The expansion of presidential powers – The heavy use of television advertising – Presidential candidates promise things they cannot deliver once in office Evaluate the qualities that contribute to presidential success or failure. 7.5 Back to Learning Objectives
  34. 34. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Five Qualities of Success • Vision • Pragmatism • Consensus Building • Charisma • Trustworthiness 7.5 Back to Learning Objectives
  35. 35. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The theory of restrained presidential powers – the idea that presidents should use only the powers explicitly granted in the Constitution – is exemplified by the A. modern presidential model. B. stewardship model. C. institutional presidential model. D. Whig model. 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  36. 36. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The theory of restrained presidential powers – the idea that presidents should use only the powers explicitly granted in the Constitution – is exemplified by the A. modern presidential model. B. stewardship model. C. institutional presidential model. D. Whig model. 7.1 Back to Learning Objectives
  37. 37. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following is not considered part of the president’s “inner cabinet”? A. Department of Commerce B. Department of Defense C. Department of Justice D. Department of State 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  38. 38. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following is not considered part of the president’s “inner cabinet”? A. Department of Commerce B. Department of Defense C. Department of Justice D. Department of State 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  39. 39. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The _____________ is responsible for assisting the president in preparing an annual budget. A. Council of Economic Advisors B. General Accounting Office C. Office of Management and Budget D. Congressional Budget Office 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  40. 40. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The _____________ is responsible for assisting the president in preparing an annual budget. A. Council of Economic Advisors B. General Accounting Office C. Office of Management and Budget D. Congressional Budget Office 7.2 Back to Learning Objectives
  41. 41. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The concept associated with a president’s attempt to win the public’s hearts and minds is called A. media manipulation. B. target marketing. C. public service announcements. D. going public. 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  42. 42. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The concept associated with a president’s attempt to win the public’s hearts and minds is called A. media manipulation. B. target marketing. C. public service announcements. D. going public. 7.3 Back to Learning Objectives
  43. 43. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman As ____________, the president performs a variety of activities that are largely ceremonial in nature. A. military chief B. chief legislator C. commander in chief D. chief of state 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  44. 44. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman As ____________, the president performs a variety of activities that are largely ceremonial in nature. A. military chief B. chief legislator C. commander in chief D. chief of state 7.4 Back to Learning Objectives
  45. 45. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman What do you think? Does the president’s use of “signing statements” interfere with the will of Congress to legislate? YES. Signing statements can represent the refusal of the president to fulfill his duty to enforce the law. NO. As chief bureaucrat, it is the president’s duty to interpret the meaning of the laws he is to enforce. Back to Learning Objectives
  46. 46. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman What do you think? Do you think the president should have the power to line-item veto appropriations? YES. The Constitution states simply that the president needs to either sign or veto legislation, not parts of it. NO. The president is ultimately accountable for spending and members of the House lack the will power to preclude special projects for their respective constituencies. Back to Learning Objectives
  47. 47. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Credits 216 Win McNamee/Getty Images; 219 Library of Congress; 220 Bettmann/Corbis; 221 Official White House Photo by Pete Souza; 224 Official White House Photo by Pete Souza (2); 225 Hulton Archive/Getty Images; 226 Jim Young/Reuters/Landov; 230 AP Images/Lawrence Jackson; 232 AP Images; 233, clockwise from top left: AP Images/Paul Beaty; Pat Benic/UPI/Landov; Jason Reed/Reuters/Landov; Goddard Claussen Public Affairs; 234:AP Images/Bob Daugherty; 236 AP Images/Pfc. L. Paul Epley; 238, AP Images/Jack Kightlinger; 240 Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Images; 243, top to bottom: Public Domain (2); Bettmann/Corbis; Hulton Archive/Getty Images; Public Domain; Library of Congress; AP Images/Doug Mills Back to Learning Objectives

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