Ch3 verbal


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Ch3 verbal

  1. 1. Ch. 3 Verbal Comm. Created by students for students Fall 07
  2. 2. What is language • Language is a collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate. • When you listen to others’ verbal communication, you decode (assign meaning to) their words in order to translate them into thoughts of your own.
  3. 3. Language Has Rules • 3 Rules: • Semantics: the branch of language study that is concerned with meaning. • Syntax: a set of rules about language that determines how words are arranged to form phrases and sentences. • Pragmatics: the study of language as it is used in a social context, including its effect on the communicators.
  4. 4. Language Has Rules cont. Phatic communication: communication that is used to establish a mood of sociability rather than to communicate information or ideas.
  5. 5. Language • Sexist Language • Racist Language • Heterosexist Language
  6. 6. Language and Culture Are Intertwined • Culture: the socially transmitted behavior patterns, beliefs, attitudes, and values of a particular period, class, community, or population. • Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: A theory that our perception of reality is determined by our thought processes and our thought processes are limited by our language and, therefore, that language shapes our reality.
  7. 7. Language is Arbitrary • Words have no inherent meanings; they have only the meanings people give them. • Denotative Meaning: The agreedupon meaning or dictionary meaning of a word. • Connotative Meaning: An individualized or personalized meaning of a word, which may be emotionally laden.
  8. 8. Language is Abstract • Words are abstractions, or simplifications of what they stand for. • Words stand for ideas and things, but they are not the same as those ideas and things.
  9. 9. Colloquialisms and Clichés • Colloquialisms: Words and phrases that are used informally. • Ex. “Have a good day,” “Good to see you” • Clichés: An expression that has lost originality and force through overuse. • Ex. “No pain, no gain,” “Beauty is only skin deep”
  10. 10. Euphemisms and Slang • Euphemism: A polite, more pleasant expression used instead of a socially unacceptable form. • “see a man about a dog” • Slang: A specialized language of a group of people who share a common interest or belong to a similar co-culture.
  11. 11. Profanity and Jargon • Profanity: Language that is disrespectful of things sacred, commonly known as “swearing.” • Jargon: the technical language developed by a professional group.
  12. 12. Regionalisms and Indexing • Regionalisms: Words and phrases that are specific to a particular region or part of the country • Indexing: Identifying the uniqueness of objects, events, and people.
  13. 13. Operational Definitions • Definitions that identify something by revealing how it works, how it is made, or what it consists of.
  14. 14. Cultural Competence • Cultural Competence: The ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, classes, races, ethnic backgrounds, and religions in a manner that recognizes, affirms, and values the worth of individuals, families, and communities and protects and preserves the dignity of each.
  15. 15. Metatalk • When your talking about the communication itself. (how your communicating) • Talk in which meaning is not literal. • Chatting, small talk, “break a leg”