0205084567 ch06 (1)

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Ch. 6

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  • Delegate Model of Representation: The philosophy that legislators should adhere to the will of their constituents. Trustee Model of Representation: The philosophy that legislators should consider the will of the people but act in ways they believe best for the long-term interests of the nation. Politico Model of Representation: The philosophy that legislators should follow their own judgment (that is, act like a trustee) until the public becomes vocal about a particular matter, at which point they should follow the dictates of constituents Conscience Model of Representation: The philosophy that legislators should follow the will of the people until they truly believe it is in the best interests of the nation to act differently Symbolic representation: The job members perform when they speak on behalf of the groups to which they belong; especially their demographic group.
  • Bicameral Legislature: A legislature composed of two houses. The House historically reflected the idea that average citizens should select leaders who would follow their wishes rather closely. Yet the other chamber of the legislature, the Senate, allowed state legislatures to pick senators
  • Sets the length of terms for House members (two years) and specifies the basic qualifications for service. House members must be 25 years of age, a citizen of the United States for at least seven years, and a resident of the state where they are elected. Begins with the method of selecting a senator. Originally, the Constitution stated that each state legislature would select its two U.S. senators. This changed with ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913.
  • Rotation: The staggering of senatorial terms such that one-third of the Senate comes up for election every two years. Rotation ensures that the Senate’s membership can never be changed all at once just because the public has become outraged over some issue, and assures stability for state representation.
  • For the most part, Congress has left these election processes to the states. But after the Fifteenth Amendment, and in defiance of its intent, many southern states imposed poll taxes, literacy tests, and excessive residency requirements to keep African Americans from voting.
  • Art. 1 Section 8 was controversial because of the necessary & proper clause, or elastic clause . Elastic clause (necessary and proper clause): A statement in Article I, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution that grants Congress the power to pass all laws “necessary and proper” for carrying out the list of expressed powers.
  • Reapportionment: The process by which seats in the House of Representatives are reassigned among the states to reflect population changes following the Census (every 10 years). Redistricting: The process of redrawing legislative district boundaries within a state to reflect population changes.
  • At-Large Districts: Districts encompassing an entire state, or large parts of a state, in which House members are reelected to represent the entire area. The redistricting process has also been used to minimize the representation of minority groups.
  • Gerrymandering is the drawing of legislative districts for partisan advantage. Positive gerrymandering has been used to create majority-minority districts wherein the majority of the population within an electoral district is made up ethnic minorities.
  • Baker v. Carr (1961): Supreme Court case that set the standard that House districts must contain equal numbers of constituents, thus establishing the principle of “one person, one vote
  • Baker v. Carr (1961): Supreme Court case that set the standard that House districts must contain equal numbers of constituents, thus establishing the principle of “one person, one vote
  • Standing committees are the permanent structures that perform the detailed work of a legislature, such as drafting bills for consideration Subcommittees: Specialized groups within standing committees. Most of the day-to-day lawmaking and oversight of Congress occurs at the subcommittee level.
  • Select committees are temporary and are created to deal with a particular issue or problem. They disappear either when the problem is resolved or, more likely, when the congressional session ends. They serve primarily in an investigative role and cannot approve legislation or move it forward. Conference Committee: A committee of members of the House and Senate that irons out differences in similar measures that have passed both houses to create a single bill Joint committees are composed of members selected from each chamber. The work of these committees generally involves investigation, research, and oversight of agencies closely related to Congress. Permanent joint committees, created by statute, are sometimes called standing joint committees.
  • Referral The 1946 act required that all legislation be referred to a committee Hearings: Committee sessions for taking testimony from witnesses and for collecting information on legislation under consideration or for the development of new legislation. Markup the actual language of the bill is hammered out The Rules Report: the Rules committee provides rules regarding the consideration of the legislation and its debate and whether or not amendments will be allowed which helps streamline the process and make things fair. Oversight the responsibility of Congress to keep a close eye on the federal bureaucracy’s implementation of federal law.
  • Orientation function: The job of familiarizing new members of Congress with the procedures, norms, and customs of the chamber. Voting Cues: Summaries encapsulating the informed judgment of others in the legislature; members of Congress rely on these to streamline the decision-making process. Whips: Assistants to House and Senate leaders, responsible for drumming up support for legislation and for keeping count of how members plan to vote on different pieces of legislation.
  • Speaker: The presiding officer of the House of Representatives, who is also the leader of the majority party in the House.
  • Congressional caucuses are also sometimes called coalitions, study groups, and task forces. In brief, they are informal, voluntary groups of legislators who have enough in common to meet regularly. The goal is to share information and strategize on policy matters. Party unity scores: measures of party unity based on a gauge of how often members of the same party stick together. Since 1954, there has been a clear pattern of greater unity, echoing what many see as an increasingly polarized Congress.
  • First, the election of 1824, leading to the so-called Corrupt Bargain, reinvigorated party spirit in the United States, and partisanship soon intensified in both houses of Congress. Second, Henry Clay of Kentucky had been elected speaker in 1823 and he was aggressive, outspoken, ambitious, and highly partisan. Since the 1820s, the winner of these internal elections has always been a member of the majority party.
  • The Constitution stipulates that the vice president of the United States shall be president of the Senate. Under the Constitution, however, the vice president can vote only to break a tie. President pro tempore ( pro tempore is a Latin phrase meaning “for the time being” and is usually abbreviated to pro tem). Through tradition, this position has become purely ceremonial and is always bestowed on the most senior member of the majority party.
  • The answer is a mix of formal and informal powers. Speakers of the House refer legislation to committee, preside over floor proceedings, appoint members to conference and other joint committees, and set the rules of how legislation will be debated and how long such debates might last. They establish the floor agenda, meaning that they decide which bills get to be debated and for how long. The speaker can also use the force of personality and prestige to persuade other members of the legislature to go along with his or her wishes
  • In the Senate, the majority leader’s powers are broad but not as extensive as the speaker’s. Majority leaders have great influence on committee assignments, on the scheduling of floor debate, on the selection of conference committee members, and in picking their own conference’s leaders. Yet majority leaders have less sway in the Senate for several reasons: first, because of that institution’s somewhat different internal rules; second, because of the long-standing notion that the Senate is the “upper chamber,” filled with more experienced and higher-status politicians; and third, because Senate norms dictate a more egalitarian process. In other words, Senate rules protect each member’s right to participate as an individual far more than House rules do.
  • First, leaders of both parties in the Senate quite often will informally negotiate the terms for debate and amendment of a bill scheduled to be sent to the floor. This is called unanimous consent, because all senators must be in agreement Filibuster: An unlimited debate in which one senator or a group of senators keeps talking without interruption unless three-fifths of the chamber (60 senators) votes to end the discussion. Cloture: A rule declaring the end of a debate in the Senate. Hold: A senator signals to the rest of the chamber that it would be pointless to bring a piece of legislation to the floor, because he or she intends to use delaying tactics to stave off a final vote. A hold can be trumped, of course, with 60 votes for cloture.
  • Seniority stipulates that the longer a member of either chamber has served, the greater deference and the more power he or she should have Apprenticeship norm. In the past, novice legislators were expected to work hard, get along, be deferential and polite, keep their mouths shut most of the time, and study the legislative process Civility: Regardless of party, ideology, or position on issues, it is expected that members accord each other respect and a high - even exaggerated - level of courtesy. Reciprocity is expected. That is, members are expected to support each other’s initiatives on a “you scratch my back, and I’ll scratch yours” basis Specialization: A norm suggesting that each member has extensive knowledge in a particular policy area. Logrolling means that members reciprocally exchange support, often on earmarks, or what is sometimes termed pork-barrel legislation. Earmarks or Pork-Barrel Legislation is legislation that benefits one state or district; also called particularized legislation .
  • A bill sponsor, the official “parent” of the legislation will introduce a measure in the House. After a bill is introduced, it is referred to a committee (occasionally, to two or more committees), and from there, it is usually sent to the appropriate subcommittee. Hearings are held, the language is sometimes modified (in the markup process), and if a bill is approved at this level, it is reported back to the full committee. The committee often will simply accept or reject the measure offered by the subcommittee. Any bill approved by a full committee is sent to the floor for full-chamber consideration. In the House of Representatives, however, a required stop is the Rules Committee. There is no similar procedure in the Senate because of unanimous consent. During floor consideration, every member has an opportunity to express support or opposition. Identical versions of a bill must must be approved in both houses, it goes to the president to be signed—or to face a veto. Measures passed in one house but not the other house are called one-house bills. A bill becomes a law when the president signs it. If ten days pass without the president having signed the bill, the bill becomes law. Or the president can veto the bill, sending it back to the Congress. The measure can still become a law if two-thirds of each house of Congress votes to override the veto.
  • Barbara Sinclair has noted changes in a series of important books and articles, documenting the nontraditional means by which legislation proceeds in today’s Congress.
  • Members of Congress face particularized constituencies pitting national interests against local ones Because of longer terms of office, the Senate is better situation to deal with unpopular legislation compared to the House no easy answer to the age-old question of whether legislators should be delegates, trustees, or something in between
  • Many people feel that, at the very least, a legislative body should look like the nation as a whole. According to this viewpoint, race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, occupation, age, and other demographics matter.
  • FIGURE 6.5 Occupations, Education, Party Profile, and Gender Composition of the 112th Congress
  • We might consider an at-large system, under which states that have two or more representatives would have no distinct districts: Voters would vote for at-large candidates, and these candidates would get into the House in descending order according to the number of votes they won.
  • Roughly 40% of members of Congress serving at any given time are attorneys. Bankers and business professionals make up about the same percentage, and educators (schoolteachers and professors) account for roughly 15%. All other occupational backgrounds, including clergy, farmers, and retired military personnel, have been represented by only 5% of the members. Laborers, small farmers, homemakers, service employees, and other blue-collar workers, who make up a vast majority of the American workforce, have never accounted for more than a tiny fraction of the members of Congress
  • In one national survey, only 20% of Americans rate the ethics of members of Congress as “high” or “very high”.
  • FIGURE 6.6 Public Opinion Poll on Congressional Ethics
  • 0205084567 ch06 (1)

    1. 1. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
    2. 2. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Congress CHAPTER6
    3. 3. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Nature and Style of Representation Differentiate between the various ways legislators represent the interests of their constituents. Congress and the Constitution Identify the key constitutional provisions that shape the way Congress functions. Organizing Congress: Committees Establish the importance of committees in organizing the legislative process. Organizing Congress: Political Parties and Leadership Assess how political parties and leaders manage the legislative process while advancing their own initiatives. Key Objectives 6.1 12. 6.4 6.3 6.2 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
    4. 4. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Organizing Congress: Rules and Norms Show how the rules and norms of behavior help ensure a more orderly, efficient legislative process. How a Bill Becomes Law Outline the process by which a bill becomes a law. Who Sits in Congress? Determine whether members of Congress mirror America’s demographic diversity and why this matters. Are Americans Losing Faith in the “People’s Branch”? Compare the state of congressional ethics with Americans’ perception of the legislative branch. Key Objectives 6.5 6.8 6.7 6.6 Click on buttons to go to the relevant slide.
    5. 5. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Nature and Style of Representation • A republic is a democracy in which representatives speak and act on behalf of the citizens – Trustee Model – Delegate Model – Politico Model – Conscience Model • Symbolic representation Differentiate between the various ways legislators represent the interests of their constituents. 6.1 Back to Learning Objectives
    6. 6. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The philosophy that legislators should adhere to the will of their constituents is represented by which model? A. Trustee Model B. Politico Model C. Delegate Model D. Conscience Model 6.1 Back to Learning Objectives
    7. 7. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The philosophy that legislators should adhere to the will of their constituents is represented by which model? A. Trustee Model B. Politico Model C. Delegate Model D. Conscience Model 6.1 Back to Learning Objectives
    8. 8. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Congress and the Constitution • Article I describes both the structure and the function of the bicameral legislature. • This bicameral body would be composed of a House of Representatives and a Senate. Identify the key constitutional provisions that shape the way Congress functions. 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    9. 9. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Who Can Serve in Congress? • Art I, Sec. 2: House members – Length of term – Age, citizenship, and residency requirements. • Art. 1, Sec 3: Senators – Establishes the method for selecting senators – Age, citizenship and residency requirements – Length of term, dividing the Senate into classes for the purpose of rotation. 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    10. 10. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman House of Representatives • 435 members • 2-year term, with no limits on re-election • Qualifications for office –25 years of age –US citizen for at least seven years –A resident of the state they represent 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    11. 11. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Senate • 100 members • 6-year terms, in staggered rotation • Originally selected by each state legislature, changed by the Seventeenth Amendment • Qualifications for office – 30 years old – A US citizen for at least nine years – A resident of the state he or she represents 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    12. 12. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following is not true about members of the House A. Members must be at least 30 years old. B. Members must be a US citizen. C. Members must reside in the state they represent. D. Members must win election in their state. 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    13. 13. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Which of the following is not true about members of the House A. Members must be at least 30 years old. B. Members must be a US citizen. C. Members must reside in the state they represent. D. Members must win election in their state. 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    14. 14. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Congressional Elections • Article I, Sec. 4 outlines the election process but Congress has intervened – Fifteenth Amendment – Voting Rights Act of 1965 – National Voter Registration Act (Motor Voter Law) – Help America Vote Act of 2002 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    15. 15. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Functions of Congress • Represent constituents • Make laws • Provide oversight • Serve as a check on the Executive and Judicial branches 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    16. 16. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Lawmaking • Article I, Section 7 addresses how a bill becomes law and also specifies the checks and balances between the two houses of Congress and between the other branches of the government. • Article I, Section 8, lists the expressed powers of the legislative branch, but also includes the controversial necessary and proper clause. 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    17. 17. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Reapportionment and Redistricting • Following the decennial census, Congress is reapportioned based upon population shifts between the states • Reapportionment has significant economic and public policy consequences • After the Congress is reapportioned, the burden then falls upon states to redraw electoral boundaries within their respective states 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    18. 18. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Redistricting • In the early years, many states used at-large districts • The idea of changing legislative districts in response to population shifts stems from the American idea of geographic representation • Redistricting can be problematic 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    19. 19. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Gerrymandering • Gerrymandering is the creation of oddly shaped districts as a means of shaping the results of future elections in those districts 6.2 • Packing involves lumping as many opposition voters as possible into one district • Cracking involves splitting up voters thought to favor the opposition so that they do not make up a majority in any district and thus cannot win in any district. Back to Learning Objectives
    20. 20. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman In Baker v. Carr, the Supreme Court determined that A. The creation of majority-minority districts is constitutional. B. Single member districts are constitutional. C. House districts must contain equal numbers of voters. D. The Voting Rights Act of 1964 was unconstitutional. 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    21. 21. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman In Baker v. Carr, the Supreme Court determined that A. The creation of majority-minority districts is constitutional. B. Single member districts are constitutional. C. House districts must contain equal numbers of voters. D. The Voting Rights Act of 1964 was unconstitutional. 6.2 Back to Learning Objectives
    22. 22. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Organizing Congress: Committees • The issues of structure and organization are also important when considering how policy change might be accomplished through the legislative process and how individual citizens might make a difference • The Constitution empowers each house of the legislature to create rules and structure for operation Establish the importance of committees in organizing the legislative process. 6.3 Back to Learning Objectives
    23. 23. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Standing Committees • Members of each committee become experts • Dividing the legislature’s work is efficient • Enhances the representation process • Provides a “safety valve” function for public debate and controversy • Offer citizens many points of access into the legislative process 6.3 Back to Learning Objectives
    24. 24. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Other Types of Committees • Select committees • Conference committees • Joint committees • Standing joint committees 6.3 Back to Learning Objectives
    25. 25. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman What Committees Do • Referral and jurisdiction – Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 – By the early 1970s, the House adopted a process of multiple referrals. • Hold hearings and conduct investigations • Markup legislation • Rules report • Provide bureaucratic oversight 6.3 Back to Learning Objectives
    26. 26. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Importance of Committee Staff • “Committee staff spend a lot of their time on policymaking activities.” “They research issues and generate information relevant to administrative oversight; draft bills; prepare speeches, statements, and reports; organize and help run committee hearings; and sometimes engage directly in legislative bargaining. 6.3 Back to Learning Objectives
    27. 27. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Organizing Congress: Political Parties and Leadership Parties in the legislatures – Parties in the legislature serve an orientation function – Parties set the agenda for the coming session and establish priorities – Parties and whips provide voting cues – Parties organize the committee appointment process Assess how political parties and leaders manage the legislative process while advancing their own initiatives. 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    28. 28. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Importance of Majority Status in the House • The majority party sets the ratio of party representation on each committee • The majority party selects the chair of each committee and subcommittee • The majority party is able to vote a member of their own party as Speaker • The majority party controls the flow of legislation to the floor 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    29. 29. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Legislative Parties and Change • There are numerous partisan-based groups in Congress, allowing members in each chamber to come together to promote issues of mutual concern • The largest caucus is the party conference, which is comprised of all members of a political party in each chamber • Members of the party are expected to support other members, particularly on votes for leadership positions 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    30. 30. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Legislative Leadership • The Constitution states that each chamber will have “leaders” – In the House, a speaker is chosen – In the Senate, a president is selected • Leaders were to be impartial, but this didn’t last long • Today a hierarchy of leadership now exists for both parties in both chambers. 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    31. 31. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The Senate Leadership • The vice president is the president of the Senate, but can only vote in the case of a tie • In the vice president’s absence, the president of the Senate is the president pro tempore • Majority and minority leaders are the elected leaders representing the respective parties 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    32. 32. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Speaker of the House • Specific powers include – Refers legislation to specific committees – Presides over floor proceedings – Appoints members to conference and joint committees – Sets rules for debate – Determines agenda for the floor 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    33. 33. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman In the House of Representatives • Both formal and informal powers can be used. – Formal powers • Referral power • Presiding over floor • Appointment power • Setting rules for debate of legislation – Informal powers • Prestige of the office • Personality of the individual 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    34. 34. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Senate The majority leader of the Senate has broad powers, but not as extensive as in the House for a couple of reasons: - Internal Senate rules limit the leader’s power, even over his own party members -The Senate’s status as the ‘upper chamber” affords members with more status - Senate norms dictate more egalitarian| treatment of the members 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    35. 35. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The leader of the Senate is called A. The speaker B. The president pro tempore C. The majority leader D. The whip 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    36. 36. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman The leader of the Senate is called A. The speaker B. The president pro tempore C. The majority leader D. The whip 6.4 Back to Learning Objectives
    37. 37. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Organizing Congress: Rules and Norms • The Constitution states that each house establishes its own rules – House is larger, with more committees and rules – Senate is smaller with fewer committees and rules • Unanimous Consent • Filibuster and Cloture • Holds Show how the rules and norms of behavior help ensure a more orderly, efficient legislative process. 6.5 Back to Learning Objectives
    38. 38. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Unwritten Rules of Congress • Seniority • Apprenticeship • Civility • Specialization • Reciprocity or logrolling for pork-barrels, earmarks 6.5 Back to Learning Objectives
    39. 39. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman How a Bill Becomes a Law • Introduction • Referral • Committee Consideration • Rules for floor action determined • Floor consideration and action • Conference Committee • Presidential action • Overriding a veto Outline the process by which a bill becomes a law. 6.6 Back to Learning Objectives
    40. 40. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Unorthodox Lawmaking • Multiple referrals are increasingly common • There are occasions when bills will bypass committees altogether • Increasingly common for each chamber to pass generic bills, allowing conference committees to craft the details • “Ping-ponging” has increased • Increase in omnibus legislation • An increase in congressional-executive summits 6.6 Back to Learning Objectives
    41. 41. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Emergency Legislation • Occasionally, emergencies arise during which the legislature is called upon to act quickly and to condense the process into a few days. Congress can move quickly, but not nearly as rapidly as the executive branch can. 6.6 Back to Learning Objectives
    42. 42. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Making Laws: A Summary • Only about 400 laws are actually passed out of over 10,000 bills introduced over a 2-year period • Most of the laws passed are low-profile, technical adjustments to existing laws and only a handful are significant measures • The road from introduction to presidential signature is long and difficult 6.6 Back to Learning Objectives
    43. 43. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman A bill offered by one house in one version and not offered in the same version by the other house is called a A. one-house bill. B. single measure. C. single-action item. D. House measure. 6.6 Back to Learning Objectives
    44. 44. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman A bill offered by one house in one version and not offered in the same version by the other house is called a A. one-house bill. B. single measure. C. single-action item. D. House measure. 6.6 Back to Learning Objectives
    45. 45. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Who Sits in Congress? • Why are there so few women and ethnic minorities in Congress? – Historically, fewer women and minorities have sought office – Single-member districts • Members are still largely, white, male, and wealthy Determine whether members of Congress mirror America’s demographic diversity and why this matters. 6.7 Back to Learning Objectives
    46. 46. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Gender • After steady increases in the number of women serving in Congress, the 112th will see a decline 6.7 Back to Learning Objectives
    47. 47. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Race and Ethnicity • Congress has hardly been an diverse body • Some Americans still find it difficult to vote for minority and female candidates – African Americans • Only five African Americans have ever been elected to the Senate • In the House, just over 100 African Americans have served – Hispanics • About 25 members of the national legislature, or about 5 percent, are of Hispanic descent 6.7 Back to Learning Objectives
    48. 48. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Income and Occupation • The national legislature does not reflect America very well on this front either • Members of Congress are far better educated and far wealthier than the average American • By and large, attorneys and executives in the business and financial industries make up the majority of the membership 6.7 Back to Learning Objectives
    49. 49. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Are Americans Losing Faith in the “People’s Branch”? • The gap between perception and reality – Pervasive media coverage of Congress – Recent high-profile cases of scandal – Tighter ethic rules – Concerns over partisan-based gridlock Compare the state of congressional ethics with Americans’ perception of the legislative branch. 6.8 Back to Learning Objectives
    50. 50. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Public Opinion Poll on Congressional Ethics Back to Learning Objectives 6.8
    51. 51. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Public trust in government has been most affected by A. heightened awareness due to increases in investigative journalism. B. the increased role of the Department of Justice in investigating corruption. C. an increasingly active Ethics Committee in the House. D. the increased level of American education and a better understanding of how Congress works. 6.8 Back to Learning Objectives
    52. 52. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman What do you think? Should the Constitution be amended to limit terms for members of Congress? YES. Too few people participate in elections today and limiting terms ensures that members do not lose touch with the electorate. NO. Congressional members that are doing a good job should be allowed to continue winning if that is what voters want. Back to Learning Objectives
    53. 53. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman What do you think? Is gridlock in Congress a good thing? YES. This ensures that bad legislation doesn’t get passed and creates stability. NO. It indicates extreme polarization of Congress and doesn’t allow work to be done on important issues. Back to Learning Objectives
    54. 54. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman Credits 176 CREDIT TO COME; 178, left to right: The Granger Collection; Bettmann/Corbis; AP Images/Kevin Rivoli; Bettmann/Corbis; 179 AP Images/The Ledger Independent, Terry Prather; 181 AP Images/Seth Perlman; 188 Chuck Kennedy/KRT/Newscom; 191, left to right: Scott J. Farrell/Getty Images; Matt Kryger/Indiana Star/PSG/Newscom; 194 Strom Thurmond Photograph Collection, Special Collections, Clemson University Libraries, Clemson, South Carolina; 196 Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images; 197 Ron Niebrugge/Alamy; 199, top middle: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images; 199, bottom middle: Larry Downing/Reuters/Landov; 203: AP Images/Michael Dwyer; 209, top to bottom: AP Images/J. Scott Applewhite; CREDIT TO COME; Strom Thurmond Photograph Collection, Special Collections, Clemson University Libraries, Clemson, South Carolina; AP Images/ Carolyn Kaster Back to Learning Objectives

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