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# Lesson 6 - Primary Research Methods 2

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### Lesson 6 - Primary Research Methods 2

1. 1. Lesson 6 RESEARCH METHODS 3
2. 2. <ul><li>Students will … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>list sampling types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>select representative samples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce sample errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plan the survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ask the questions </li></ul></ul>L e arning Out c om e s
3. 3. The world’s most famous newspaper error President Harry Truman against Thomas Dewey Chicago Tribute prepared an incorrect headline without first getting accurate information Reason?  bias  inaccurate opinion polls Sampling
4. 4. Most research cannot test everyone. Instead a sample of the whole population is selected and tested. If this is done well, the results can be applied to the whole population . This selection and testing of a sample is called sampling . If a sample is poorly chosen, all the data may be useless. Sampling Population the group of people we wish to understand. Populations are often segmented by demographic or psychographic features (age, gender, interests, lifestyles). Sample a subset of the population that represents the whole group Respondents people who answer
5. 5. Two Methods Sampling This relies on available people. For example, people passing in the street or walking through a mall. This is not objective or representative. Thus, it is often not scientific or reliable . Non-probability or Convenience Sampling This is a sample selected randomly and according to scientific guidelines. To create a simple random sample , you need (1) a list of the members of the population (2) a way to create random numbers. Probability or Random Sampling
6. 6. Sampling Lists and Random Numbers
7. 8. The Margin of Error is the measure of accuracy of a survey. The smaller the margin of error, the more accurate the survey. Sampling Margin of Error What is your primary daily media channel? How accurate is this statistic? What is the margin of error?
8. 9. Margin of Error = 1/ √ n x 100 n = number of respondents 48,804 people in TNS sample √ 48,804 = 220.916 1/221 = 0.0045 x 100 = 0.45% = 60.55% to 61.45% Sampling Margin of Error What is your primary daily media channel? How accurate is this statistic? What is the margin of error?
9. 10. 41 respondents Margin of Error= 1/ √ n x 100 n = number of respondents 41 respondents √ 41 = 6.403124237432848686488 1/6.4 = 0.15625 x 100 = 15.6% margin of error √ 25 = 5 1/5 = 0.2 X 100 = 20% margin of error How accurate is this statistic? What is the margin of error? 21.4% to 52.6% consider themselves unfriendly to the environment Margin of Error= 1/ √ n x 100 n = number of respondents What would the margin of error be for 25 respondents?
10. 11. Planning a survey <ul><li>Ask yourself the following 3 questions: </li></ul><ul><li>WHO will be the respondents? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT information do you want to </li></ul><ul><li>learn from them? </li></ul><ul><li>HOW can you effectively get that </li></ul><ul><li>information? </li></ul>Start-up questions
11. 12. Planning a survey WHO will be the respondents? Select respondents relevant to your focus Eg: Ask computer hardware related q’s to hardware engineers / IT professionals Ask toy related questions to children and mothers Start-up questions
12. 13. Planning a survey <ul><li>WHAT information do you want to </li></ul><ul><li>learn from them? </li></ul><ul><li>Think clearly of your focus </li></ul><ul><li>Think clearly of what the results might look like </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul>Start-up questions
13. 14. Planning a survey Be specific Example: This research is done to ascertain the: - Awareness of / knowledge of - Attitude towards / perception of - Demand for etc Start-up questions
14. 15. Planning a survey <ul><li>HOW can you effectively get that </li></ul><ul><li>information? </li></ul><ul><li>Choose effective questions </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on type of survey (mail, interview, telephone, online) </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Design layout </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on target population </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on sample size </li></ul><ul><li>Select sample </li></ul>Start-up questions
15. 16. Planning a survey <ul><li>Online Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of online surveys: </li></ul><ul><li>Access to a large number of people, </li></ul><ul><li>Quick </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of online surveys: </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot control the conditions </li></ul><ul><li> - someone else may answer </li></ul><ul><li> - not physically there to clarify or probe further </li></ul>Start-up questions
16. 17. The Questions <ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid jargon, slang, abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ambiguity, confusion and vagueness </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid writing double-barreled questions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid leading </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid treating a respondent’s belief about a hypothesis as a test of the hypothesis </li></ul>Start-up questions
17. 18. The Questions Asking questions 1. Avoid jargon, slang, abbreviations Example: How often do you use Polyethylene carriers? Ask instead: How often do you use plastic bags? Start-up questions
18. 19. The Questions Asking questions 2. Avoid ambiguity, confusion and vagueness Example: Do you eat out often? Ask instead: In a typical week, about how many meals do you eat away from home, at a restaurant, cafeteria, or other eating establishment? Start-up questions
19. 20. The Questions Asking questions 3. Avoid Double-barreled questions Example: Do you support or oppose the use of lead in lipsticks and paint? Ask instead: Do you support the use of lead in lipsticks? Do you support the use of lead in paint? Start-up questions
20. 21. The Questions Asking questions 4. Avoid Leading Example: Do you help the environment by using canvas shopping bags? Ask instead: Do you use canvas shopping bags? Start-up questions
21. 22. The Questions Asking questions 5. Beliefs as real Example: Do you think more educated people wear fur clothing? Ask instead: What is your education level? Do you wear fur clothing? Start-up questions
22. 23. The Questions <ul><li>Organising questions </li></ul><ul><li>Question types: </li></ul><ul><li>Closed – </li></ul><ul><li>Likert scales  </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic scales  </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking scales </li></ul><ul><li>Structured questions (age, income, education level, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Open – </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Overall / final comments </li></ul>Start-up questions
23. 24. The Introduction [Fashion and the Environment] We are a team of [Fashion Marketing] students from Raffles College of Higher Education. We are conducting this survey as part of our research project for our Academic Research and Communication Skills module under our lecturer and research supervisor Kavita Parwani. The questionnaire should take about 5 minutes to complete. Our research project examines [the attitudes of the students of Raffles College of Higher Education towards the reuse, reduction and recycling of clothing.] We hope that your response will help us understand our subject in greater depth. The information we gather is confidential and anonymous, in other words, we will not name you or identify you in connection with the information you provide. If you have any questions about the survey or our research project, please feel free to contact me, [Josephine Lim, at josephinelim@gmail.com] or our supervisor Kavita Parwani at kavitaparwani@raffles-college.edu.sg
24. 25. REFERENCES Babbie, E. (2008). The Basics of Social Research (4 th ed .) USA: Cengage. Dewey Defeats Truman (2009) Deweydefeatstruman. http:// www.deweydefeatstruman.com / Ghauri, P. & Gronhaug, K. (2005). Research Methods in Business Studies – A Practical Guide, Essex: Pearson Neuman, WL. (2009). Understanding Research . London: Pearson. Visocky O’Grady, K. & Visocky O’Grady, J. (2009). A Designer’s Research Manual , USA: Rockport.
25. 26. Exercise Question: Japan and its recent tsunami victims do not need the world’s interest, sympathy and financial assistance as Japan is a wealthy nation that can take care of itself. In groups: Part 1: Conduct secondary research (Lesson 3) Part 2: Conduct primary research (Lesson 4-5) Part 3: Evaluate the research (Lesson 6) Part 4: Submit a short report on your findings (Lesson 7)
26. 27. Group Exercise: <ul><li>Select your topic (Japan / Random) </li></ul><ul><li>Select your focus </li></ul><ul><li>Write 7-10 research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of Demographic and Psychograpic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Select 10 respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Do the survey </li></ul><ul><li>Tabulate and analyse the results </li></ul><ul><li>Optional: Calculate margin of error </li></ul><ul><li>Findings? Write out your findings, and the analysis of these findings. </li></ul>
27. 28. <ul><li>Project Step 3: </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation 3: Research Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a 5-6 minute presentation explaining your primary research methods . </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how you will collect information/data on the topic. Explain whether you decided to do quantitative or qualitative research and why. </li></ul><ul><li>Which method(s) will you use? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will you sample ? How? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What questions will you ask? Give examples . </li></ul><ul><li>What problems do you foresee? </li></ul><ul><li>Detail your sources . </li></ul><ul><li>Design PowerPoint slides . </li></ul>homework
28. 29. Quantitative data used to measure subjective information. Psychographic research attempts to quantify the qualitative . Collected via a questionnaire in a survey or structured interview. Common psychographic variables are: opinions, religious beliefs, music tastes, personality traits and lifestyle choices. Data Collection Psychographic Question Types Likert Scales 
29. 30. Quantitative data used to measure subjective information. Psychographic research attempts to quantify the qualitative . Collected via a questionnaire in a survey or structured interview. Common psychographic variables are: opinions, religious beliefs, music tastes, personality traits and lifestyle choices. Data Collection Psychographic Question Types Likert Scales 1. If GAP were a person, what kind of person would it be? Circle the number on the scale that reflects your opinion. Honest Dishonest Fashionable Unfashionable Generous Greedy Traditional Modern Rude Polite Serious Fun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Semantic Scales  2. What do you think of Singapore? Circle the number on the scale that reflects your opinion. Boring Fun Clean Sterile Relaxed Uptight Creative Stilted 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7