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Strategies to teach paragraph writing to primary students. Hand-book 2


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Types of paragraphs
Writing a character sketch
Writing and informal letter

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Strategies to teach paragraph writing to primary students. Hand-book 2

  1. 1. Strategies to TeachParagraph WritingtoPrimary StudentsHandbook 2Handbook 1Kavita Grover
  2. 2. As a part of my research in classroom intervention to accelerate students’learning the given worksheets are a compilation of worksheets and strategies toteach students from grades 3-5 to write an organised paragraph. I havepresented my research work in three parts.Handbook 1: What is a paragraph and parts of a paragraphHandbook 2: Types of paragraphsHandbook 3: Using graphic organisers to teach paragraph writingThese strategies can be used for individual, pair or group work. They are in theform of worksheets with increasing complexity.In this handbook I have also included strategies that help the students to write acharacter sketch and an informal letter. As part of my research I had used astudent friendly rubric so that they could assess their own work against a givencriteria. The criteria for assessment were Content, Organization, Word choice,Sentence fluency and Conventions.Initially two parameters content and organization were assessed, conventionsbeing kept a constant. An opened –ended question was assessed in eachworksheet. When the learner had shown a measurable improvement in theirparagraph writing/organizational skills a learner could identify their ownweaknesses in word choice and sentence fluency.Kavita Grover Page 2
  3. 3. Worksheet 1Structure of a paragraph quiz“Why I want to learn English”(1) There are three reasons why I want to learn English. (2)One reason is thatEnglish has become an international language.(3)It is used by mostinternational companies, including the company where I work for businesscommunication.(4)Another reason why I want to learn English is that I cantravel to English speaking countries .(5)The United Stated ,England,Australia and many other countries all use English as their primarylanguage.(6)Finally I want to learn English because I plan to move to the future.(7) I will become a manager for my company soon. (8) Forall these reasons, I am very excited about learning English.1) Write the correct number for each sentence:i. Identify the topic statement:_______ii. Identify the conclusion:____________iii. Identify the first main point:_________iv. Identify the second main point:_______v. Identify the third main point:________vi. Identify the support detail for the first main point:________vii. Identify the support detail for the second main point:______viii. Identify the support detail for the third main point:_______Kavita Grover Page 3
  4. 4. Fact sheet on types of paragraphsA. Classification paragraph: When writing a classification paragraph, yougroup things or ideas into specific categories.B. Description paragraph: In a description paragraph, you are writingabout what a person, place, or thing is like. Sometimes, you may describewhere a place is located.C. Compare and contrast paragraph: In a compare and contrastparagraph, you write about the similarities and differences between twoor more people, places, things, or ideas.D. Sequencing paragraph: In a sequencing paragraph, you are writing todescribe a series of events or a process in some sort of order. Usually, thisorder is based on time.E. Explaining paragraph: In an explanation paragraph, you need to explainhow or why something happens. Very often in social studies class, youwill be asked to explore causes and effects of certain events.Kavita Grover Page 4
  5. 5. Worksheet 2Descriptive ParagraphYou are writing what a person, place or thing is like. Helper or keywords used for writing a descriptive paragraph are given in the tablebelow.Properties Measurement Analogy Locationsize length is like incolour width resembles aboveshape mass/weight belowpurpose speed besidenearnorth/east/south/westActivity: Study the picture given below and with the help of the key wordswrite a paragraph on the African Elephant.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Kavita Grover Page 5
  6. 6. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Kavita Grover Page 6
  7. 7. Worksheet 3Compare and contrast paragraphYou write about similarities and differences between two or more places, thingsor ideas. The helper/ key words used to compare are given in the table below.Similarities Differencesis similar to the other handboth howeveralso buttoo in contrastas well differs fromwhileunlikeActivity 1: With the help of the key words given above write any threedifferences between the Asian and the African elephants.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Kavita Grover Page 7
  8. 8. Worksheet 4Sequencing paragraphIn a sequencing paragraph, you are writing to describe a series of eventsor a process in some sort of order.i) Carefully study the picture given and convert it into a flow chart.Kavita Grover Page 8
  9. 9. Kavita Grover Page 9IntroductionEvent 1Event 2Event 3Event 4
  10. 10. ii) With the help of the key words given in the box convert the flow chartinto a sequencing paragraph with a suitable title.Kavita Grover Page 10Order Timefirst, second, third, etc. recentlyin the beginning previouslybefore afterwardsthen whenafter afterfinallyat lastsubsequently
  11. 11. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Kavita Grover Page 11
  12. 12. RemediationFrequently occurring mistakes in the sequencing paragraph:1) In the beginning, first the barks are cut.________________________________________________________2) The trees will be cut.________________________________________________________3) Then at second after the bark-- ______________________________4) First bark is stripped, second wood chips broken---________________________________________________________5) Then it goes ahead to make pulp then pulp is cleaned and bleachedthen pulp is beaten and then chemicals and dyes are mixed.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Kavita Grover Page 12Note: The samples given below are some of the students’ written responses.
  13. 13. Worksheet 5Objective: Picture comprehensionSkill: Synthesis of a story using visual prompts.The pictures below have got mixed up. Put them in the correct order and write astory. Use the helping words for a sequencing paragraph.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Kavita Grover Page 13
  14. 14. Objective: self evaluation of the written text (story)You had written a story in your last workshop. Read your story again and gradeyourself according to the story writing rubric given to you. For each categorytick the correct box. Fill in the table given below using the rubrics. Add themarks and find your total marks out of 20.1) What marks/grades did you get? ________________2) What/which mistakes did you make?MistakesIdeasOrganizationWord choiceFluencyConventionKavita Grover Page 14
  15. 15. Story writing rubricKavita Grover Page 15
  16. 16. Character sketchKavita Grover Page 16
  17. 17. Character sketchBefore asking the students to write the character sketch sensitize them tofeeling, emotions, facial expressions and situations. Ask to identify situationswhere they have felt these emotions. Then ask them to critically read the text toidentify sentences which gave them the cue about a person’s character.1) Identify the expression and tick the correct emotion.Facial expression emotion SynonymsSurpriseAngerHappyFearSadDisgustStartle, sudden reaction to something,astonishedAns: SurpriseSurpriseAngerHappyFearSadDisgustContempt, revulsion, scornfulAns: DisgustSurpriseAngerHappyFearSadDisgustUnhappy, miserable, distress, feel likecryingAns: SadSurpriseAngerHappyFearSadDisgustExcitement, glad, merry, delighted, joyfulAns: HappyKavita Grover Page 17
  18. 18. SurpriseAngerHappyFearSadDisgustRage, furious, hostile, angry,Ans: AngerSurpriseAngerHappyFearSadDisgustTerror, scared, afraid, terrifiedAns:Fear2) Feeling can be of two types: pleasant and unpleasant. From the tablegiven in question 1, classify the feelings as pleasant and unpleasant. Writethe synonyms for each in the word tree.Pleasant FeelingKavita Grover Page 18
  19. 19. Unpleasant feeling3) What emotion is conveyed by the following sentences?a) “I was I who broke the vase.” ______________b) “I am the cleverest boy in the class!”_______________c) “Look, there’s a mouse over there.”_________________d) “I’ll stop your pocket money if you don’t behave.” __________e) I d-d-d-did it.” _____________f) Please, please, help me.”______________Kavita Grover Page 19
  20. 20. g) “This hotel if filthy.” ___________h) Go on, Jim, try harder.”_____________4) Use the verbs in the box to show how people might speak in the situationslisted.a) I ___________ when I am in pain.b) Children ___________ when they are sad.c) He _________ when he is being secretive.d) I ___________ when I am sulking.e) They __________ when they are amused.f) I ____________ when I am unsure.g) She ___________ when she is angry.h) Tom __________ when he is nervous.5) What will you feel in the given situations?a) You see a snake. _________________b) You have stood first in your class. ____________c) You are being scolded in front of your friends._____________6) Choose a verb which best fits the meaning of the sentences. The first onehas been done for you.Kavita Grover Page 20sob howl stammer whispermutter ask shout chuckle
  21. 21. a) "I am the cleverest boy in the class,” the little boy boasted.b) “It was I who broke the vase,” he ___________.c) “Look there’s a mouse over there,” she ___________.d) “I’ll stop your pocket money if you don’t behave,” she ____________.e) “I d-d-did it,” he ____________.f) “Please, please, help me,” he _________.g) “This hotel if filthy,” she ___________.h) “Go on, Jimmy, try harder,” he _________.7) Write a paragraph on “My best friend” but first answer the question givenbelow to help you write the paragraph.a) Write the name of your best friend._________________b) How old is she? _____________c) What does she look like? ___________d) What are her hobbies? __________e) Does your friend notice your feelings? Yes/Nof) What is your friend’s mood usually?i) Cheerfulii) Sadiii)Angryg) Is your friendi) Hardworkingii) Lazyiii)Easy goingKavita Grover Page 21
  22. 22. h) Can you trust your friend with a secret? Yes/Noi) Does your friend like to mix with other people? Yes/Noj) Now write a paragraph on your best friend. (Take the help of thechecklist given above)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________8) Ask your partner the following questions about his/her best friend. Thenidentify the quality asked in each survey question. One example is done foryou. Apart from the words given in the list you can use otheradjectives/words as well.a) Is your friend usually in a good mood? Cheerfulb) Does your friend notice your feelings? _______________c) Does she give you presents, or pays for tea and coffee? ____________d) Does your friend hard? _______________e) Can you trust her with a secret? ___________f) Does she listen well when you are speaking? ________________Kavita Grover Page 22Generous easygoing anxious cheerful hardworking trustworthyImpatient optimistic sensitive moody social indecisiveReserved lazy attentive
  23. 23. g) Does your friend usually not worry about things, no matter whathappens? _____________h) Does your friend often change their opinion about things?__________i) Does your friend often postpone things he/she has to do? _________j) Is your friend happy one moment and sad the next? ____________k) Does your like to be with other people? ______________l) Is it important for your friend to be successful in whatever he/shedoes? _______m) Does your friend become angry or annoyed if he/she has to wait forsomething or someone? ______________n) Does your friend keep her/his feelings to her/himself? _____________How to write a character sketch(Reference story Cinderella)Here are some great descriptive character trait words that you can use for yourcharacter sketch! If you dont know the meaning of the words, look them up ina dictionary.Eager efficient Enthusiastic Firm Patientenergetic fair Flexible meticulous Forgivingfriendly gentle Healthy honest Humbleimaginative dutiful intelligent Kind/sympathetic Humorousindependent industrious inventive likable good-naturedhopeful brave motivated optimistic Precisereliable responsible sensible sincere SpontaneousKavita Grover Page 23
  24. 24. tenacious trustworthy Wary loyal Modestopen-minded practical realistic resourceful Punctuala) Read the story of Cinderella.b) Write different adjectives that describes the characteristics or qualitiesof the main character (Cinderella) of the story and complete thecharacter trait cluster word web. Use the fact sheet to find appropriateadjectives. (Avoid words like nice. Choose instead, words likegenerous. Do not use words like pretty to describe his/her appearance--that is not a character trait. )c) Now write the reasons or examples from the story that tells you thatCinderella has these characteristics.Kavita Grover Page 24
  25. 25. Adjective Reasons12345d) What type of person was Cinderella’s step mother?Adjective Reasons12345Kavita Grover Page 25
  26. 26. e) Write a character sketch of Cinderella.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________f) Write a character sketch of Cinderella’s stepmother.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Kavita Grover Page 26
  27. 27. Informal LetterKavita Grover Page 27
  28. 28. Worksheet 1Objective: Identifying parts of an Informal Letter1) You have to teach your brother how to write an informal (friendly) letter.Given below is the format of the letter .What instructions will you give?____________________________________________Dear _(5)________ (6)(7)(8) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________(9)__(10)____________ (11)___________(12)_____Kavita Grover Page 282341
  29. 29. AnswerS No Instructions(1) Write the address in 3 lines(2) Leave one line space(3) Write the date as Nov.29,2006(4) Leave one line space(5) Name(6) There should be no comma after the salutation(7) One line space should not be left(8) One finger space should be left(9) One line space should not be left(10) Yours affectionately ( s in yours should be without an apostrophe)(11) There should be no comma after the ending(12) Write your first nameKavita Grover Page 29
  30. 30. Worksheet 2Objective: Writing an informal letterYou are Ali, living in Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. You have received a letterfrom Sam who lives in Albury in Australia. In his letter he has written abouthis life in the Downs. Here is his letter. Read it carefully.Using the format given before, write a letter to Sam describing where youlive. (Refer to the helping words for writing a descriptive paragraph.)Kavita Grover Page 3067 Riverside LaneAlburyAustraliaOct.26, 2006Dear Ali,Hello, how are you? I am fine.Last week when we were chatting on the internet, you asked me about the life inAlbury. We live on a sheep station. Our sheep farm is so large that we have to drivefor three hours to visit our neighbours in the next farm.I go to school only once a week as it is very far. But my teacher explains the lessonsto me on the radio. I listen to her, do my homework and send it by post.I will be happy to hear from you.Write to me and tell me about your life in Saudi Arabia, which I think is a desertcountry.Yours affectionatelySam
  31. 31. AnnexureCinderellaOnce upon a time, there was a beautiful girl named Cinderella. She lived with her wickedstepmother and two stepsisters. They treated Cinderella very badly. One day, they wereinvited for a grand ball in the king’s palace. But Cinderella’s stepmother would not let hergo. Cinderella was made to sew new party gowns for her stepmother and stepsisters,and curl their hair. They then went to the ball, leaving Cinderella alone at home.Cinderella felt very sad and began to cry. Suddenly, a fairy godmother appeared andsaid, “Don’t cry, Cinderella! I will send you to the ball!” But Cinderella was sad. She said,“I don’t have a gown to wear for the ball!” The fairy godmother waved her magic wandand changed Cinderella’s old clothes into a beautiful new gown! The fairy godmotherthen touched Cinderella’s feet with the magic wand. And lo! She had beautiful glassslippers! “How will I go to the grand ball?” asked Cinderella. The fairy godmother foundsix mice playing near a pumpkin, in the kitchen. She touched them with her magic wandand the mice became four shiny black horses and two coachmen and the pumpkinturned into a golden coach. Cinderella was overjoyed and set off for the ball in the coachdrawn by the six black horses. Before leaving. the fairy godmother said, “Cinderella, thismagic will only last until midnight! You must reach home by then!”When Cinderella entered the palace, everybody was struck by her beauty. Nobody, noteven Cinderella’s stepmother or stepsisters, knew who she really was in her prettyclothes and shoes. The handsome prince also saw her and fell in love with Cinderella. Hewent to her and asked, “Do you want to daance?” And Cinderella said, “Yes!” The princedanced with her all night and nobody recognized the beautiful dancer. Cinderella was sohappy dancing with the prince that she almost forgot what the fairy godmother had said.At the last moment, Cinderella remembered her fairy godmother’s words and she rushedto go home. “Oh! I must go!” she cried and ran out of the palace. One of her glassslippers came off but Cinderella did not turn back for it. She reached home just as theclock struck twelve. Her coach turned back into a pumpkin, the horses into mice and herfine ball gown into rags. Her stepmother and stepsisters reached home shortly after that.They were talking about the beautiful lady who had been dancing with the prince.The prince had fallen in love with Cinderella and wanted to find out who the beautiful girlwas, but he did not even know her name. He found the glass slipper that had come offCinderella’s foot as she ran home. The prince said, “I will find her. The lady whose footfits this slipper will be the one I marry!” The next day, the prince and his servants tookthe glass slipper and went to all the houses in the kingdom. They wanted to find the ladywhose feet would fit in the slipper. All the women in the kingdom tried the slipper but itwould not fit any of them. Cinderella’s stepsisters also tried on the little glass slipper.They tried to squeeze their feet and push hard into the slipper, but the servant wasafraid the slipper would break. Cinderella’s stepmother would not let her try the slipperon, but the prince saw her and said, “Let her also try on the slipper!” The slipper fit herperfectly. The prince recognized her from the ball. He married Cinderella and togetherthey lived happily ever after Grover Page 31
  32. 32. Acknowledgmentwww.english-zone.com Grover Page 32