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  1. 1. Energy conservationFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sustainable energy Renewable energy Anaerobic digestion Biomass Geothermal Hydroelectricity Solar Tidal Wind Energy conservation Cogeneration Energy efficiency Geothermal Green building Microgeneration Passive solar
  2. 2. Organic Rankine cycle Sustainable transport Carbon neutral fuel Electric vehicle Green vehicle Plug-in hybridSustainable development portal Renewable energy portal Environment portal V T ERenewable energy Biofuel Biomass Geothermal Hydroelectricity Solar energy Tidal power Wave power Wind power
  3. 3. Topics by country V T EThis article is about sustainable energy resources. For the law of conservation of energy in physics,see Conservation of energy.Energy conservation refers to reducing energy through using less of an energy service. Energy conservationdiffers from efficient energy use, which refers to using less energy for a constant service. For example, drivingless is an example of energy conservation. Driving the same amount with a higher mileage vehicle is anexample of energy efficiency. Energy conservation and efficiency are both energy reduction techniques.Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can result in increased financialcapital, environmental quality, national security, and personal financial security.[1] Individuals and organizationsthat are direct consumers of energy may choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs,promote economic security, or maximize profit. However, this can lead to unintended rebound effects, whichcan negate environmental benefits of conservation unless backstops are instituted to prevent overallconsumption increases.[2] Contents [hide]1 Energy taxes2 Building Design3 Transportation4 Consumer products5 Energy conservation by country o 5.1 European Union  5.1.1 United Kingdom o 5.2 India o 5.3 Iran o 5.4 Japan o 5.5 Lebanon
  4. 4. o 5.6 New Zealand o 5.7 Sri Lanka o 5.8 United States6 See also7 References o 7.1 Notes8 External links[edit]Energy taxesSome countries employ energy or carbon taxes to motivate energy users to reduce their consumption. Asdetailed in the book, Green Illusions, carbon taxes can allow consumption to shift to nuclear power and otheralternatives that carry a different set of environmental side effects and limitations. Meanwhile, taxes on allenergy consumption stand to reduce energy use across the board, while reducing a broader array ofenvironmental consequences arising from energy production. The State of California employs a tiered energytax whereby every consumer receives a baseline energy allowance that carries a low tax. As usage increasesabove that baseline, the tax increases dramatically. Such programs aim to protect poorer households whilecreating a larger tax burden for high energy consumers.[3][edit]Building DesignOne of the primary ways to improve energy conservation in buildings is to use an energy audit. An energy auditis an inspection and analysis of energy use and flows for energy conservation in a building, process or systemto reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). This is normallyaccomplished by trained professionals and can be part of some of the national programs discussed above. Inaddition, recent development of smartphone apps enable homeowners to complete relativily sophisticatedenergy audits themselves.[4]Building technologies and smart meters can allow energy users, business and residential, to see graphicallythe impact their energy use can have in their workplace or homes. Advanced real-time energy metering is ableto help people save energy by their actions.[5]
  5. 5. Elements of passive solar design, shown in a direct gain applicationIn passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solarenergy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar designor climatic design because, unlike active solar heatingsystems, it doesnt involve the use of mechanical andelectrical devices.The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate. Elements to beconsidered include window placement and glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, and shading.Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings canretrofitted.[edit]TransportationIn the United States, suburban infrastructure evolved during an age of relatively easy access to fossil fuels,which has led to transportation-dependent systems of living. Zoning reforms that allow greater urban density aswell as designs for walking and bicycling can greatly reduce energy consumed for transportation. The use oftelecommuting by major corporations is a significant opportunity to conserve energy, as many Americans nowwork in service jobs that enable them to work from home instead of commuting to work each day. [6][edit]Consumer productsConsumers are often poorly informed of the savings of energy efficient products. The research one must putinto conserving energy often is too time consuming and costly when there are cheaper products andtechnology available using todays fossil fuels.[7] Some governments and NGOs are attempting to reduce thiscomplexity with ecolabels that make differences in energy efficiency easy to research while shopping.[8]To provide the kind of information and support people need to invest money, time and effort in energyconservation, it is important to understand and link to peoples topical concerns.[9] For instance, some retailersargue that bright lighting stimulates purchasing. However, health studies have demonstratedthat headache, stress, blood pressure, fatigue and worker error all generally increase with the common over-illumination present in many workplace and retail settings.[10][11] It has been shown that natural daylightingincreases productivity levels of workers, while reducing energy consumption.[12][edit]Energy conservation by country[edit]European UnionSee also: Energy policy of the European UnionAt the end of 2006, the European Union-EU pledged to cut its annual consumption of primary energy by 20%by 2020.[13] The European Union Energy Efficiency Action Plan is long awaited. As part of the EUs SAVE
  6. 6. Programme,[14] aimed at promoting energy efficiency and encouraging energy-saving behaviour,the Boiler Efficiency Directive[15]specifies minimum levels of efficiency for boilers fired with liquid or gaseousfuels. The European Commission is funding large-scale research projects to learn about success factors foreffective energy conservation programmes.[16][edit]United KingdomMain article: Energy use and conservation in the United KingdomEnergy conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. Keyfactors behind this are the Governments commitment to reducing carbon emissions, the projected energy gapin UK electricity generation, and the increasing reliance on imports to meet national energy needs. Domestichousing and road transport are currently the two biggest problem areas.[citation needed]Responsibility for energy conservation falls between three Government departments although is led bythe Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC). The Department for Communities and LocalGovernment (CLG) is still responsible for energy standards in buildings, and the Department for Environment,Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) retains a residual interest in energy insofar as it leads to emissions of CO2, themain greenhouse gas. The Department for Transport retains many responsibilities for energy conservation intransport. At an operational level, there are two main non-departmental governmental bodies ("quangoes") -the Energy Saving Trust, working mainly in the domestic sector with some interest in transport, and the CarbonTrust, working with industry and innovative energy technologies. In addition there are many independent NGOsworking in the sector such as the Centre for Sustainable Energy in Bristol or the National Energy Foundation inMilton Keynes, and directly helping consumers make informed choices on energy efficiencysust-it[edit]IndiaPetroleum Conservation Research Association (PCRA) is an Indian government body created in1977 and engaged in promoting energy efficiency and conservation in every walk of life. In the recent pastPCRA has done mass media campaigns in television, radio & print media. An impact assessment survey by athird party revealed that due to these mega campaigns by PCRA, overall awareness level have gone upleading to saving of fossil fuels worth crores of rupees besides reducing pollution.Bureau of Energy Efficiency is an Indian governmental organization created in 2001 responsible for promotingenergy efficiency and conservation.[edit]IranIn Iran the Iranian Fuel Conservation Company is responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservationfor Fossil fuels. Ahmadinejads administration launched the Tergeted Subsidies innitiative primarily to reducethe energy intensity of the nations economy.
  7. 7. [edit]JapanAdvertising with high energy inShinjuku, Japan.Since the 1973 oil crisis, energy conservation has been an issue in Japan. All oil based fuel is imported, soindigenous sustainable energy is being developed.The Energy Conservation Center promotes energy efficiency in every aspect of Japan. Public entities areimplementing the efficient use of energy for industries and research.[edit]LebanonIn Lebanon and since 2002 The Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation (LCEC) has been promoting thedevelopment of efficient and rational uses of energy and the use of renewable energy at the consumer level. Itwas created as a project financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Ministry of Energy Water(MEW) under the management of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and graduallyestablished itself as an independent technical national center although it continues to be supported by theUnited Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as indicated in the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)signed between MEW and UNDP in June 18, 2007.[edit]New ZealandIn New Zealand the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority is responsible for promoting energyefficiency and conservation[edit]Sri LankaMain article: Energy conservation in Sri Lanka
  8. 8. Sri Lanka currently consumes fossil fuels, hydro power, wind power, solar power and dendro power for theirday to day power generation. The Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority is playing a major role regardingenergy management and energy conservation. Today, most of the industries are requested to reduce theirenergy consumption by using renewable energy sources and optimizing their energy usage.[edit]United StatesMain article: Energy conservation in the United StatesThe United States is currently the second largest single consumer of energy, following China. The U.S.Department of Energy categorizes national energy use in four broad sectors: transportation, residential,commercial, and industrial.[17]Energy usage in transportation and residential sectors, about half of U.S. energy consumption, is largelycontrolled by individual consumers. Commercial and industrial energy expenditures are determined bybusinesses entities and other facility managers. National energy policy has a significant effect on energy usageacross all four sectors.