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R F I D
Radio
Frequency
IDentification
History
Léon Theremin In 1945 invented an espionage tool
Predecessor of RFID
Used in World War II to identify friendly aircrafts.
(1939-1945)
Mario Cardullo's device in 1973
The first true ancestor of modern RFID
Commercial applications began in 1980
Applications of RFID
TRACKING
SECURIT
Y
ANIMAL
HUSBANDRY
SPORTS
(RACE
TIMING)
Libraries
Inventory
systems
Product
tracking
Applications of RFID
Basic components of a RFID system
Tags
•This is the unit that goes with the product or its la
•Tag consist of a microchip and an antenna.
•Task of a tag is ...
Passive tag
Most common type of tag.
These tags do not operate with batteries.
The microchip in the tag will activate with...
Active Tags
Highly expensive than the passive tags.
Operate with a battery-because of that it has a higher
data range and ...
Interrogator/Reader
o Gives power to the microchip in the tag by antenna.
o Receives the signals from tags.
o This is conn...
Types of Readers
Hand held RFID reader
The fixed RFID reader
Mobile phones with RFID reader
RFID printer
This is a special type of a label printer which prints
usual bar code and other data but also adding a RFID
c...
Middleware
o Middleware is the interface between the interrogator
and the existing company databases and information
manag...
• Absence of line of sight- RFID reader can read a tag through
obstructing material that is RF-lucent for frequency use as...
• Support for multiple tag reads-it is possible to
use an RFID reader to automatically read
several RFID tags in its read ...
• Variety of read ranges- An RFID tag can have a
read range from a few inches to more than 100 ft,
depending on the freque...
Limitations of RIFD
Performance- An RFID reader could partially or
completely fail to read the tag data as a result of RF-...
Actual tag reads- Because the reader has to use some
kind of anti-collision algorithm, the number of actual
tags that a re...
An organization set up to achieve worldwide adoption
and standardization of Electronic Product Code
technology.
Objectives...
Services Provided by EPCglobal to
Its Subscribed Companies
Assignment, maintenance and registration of EPC
manager numbers...
EPC Tag Standards
Uniform Code Council, a governor of EPCglobal sets
standards how basic product information are encoded
i...
A tag structure consists with a number made up of a
header and three sets of data.
Header- identifies the EPC’s version nu...
EPCglobal Architecture Framework
A collection of inter related standards in the aim of
enhancing the supply chain through ...
Overview of Few Standards
EXCHANGE
EPCglobal certificate profile standard
Ensures broad interoperability, rapid deployment...
CAPTURE
Application level events standards
An interface for clients to obtain filtered and consolidated
EPC data.
Reader m...
Issues
Technical
Environmental
Security and
Privacy
Financial
Operational
Operational Issues
To meet global standards, companies are being required to
label cases and pallets, and sometimes indivi...
Technical Issues
The lack of consensus on standards.
Establishing global standards is the real challenge.
Ex-In the United...
Financial Issues
Cost is a major factor in determining the speed at which
RFID technology is adopted.
An RFID system requi...
Environmental Issues
As the tag prices come down and individual items
being tagged proliferate, the tags also proliferate....
Why concern about security and
privacy?
RFID- still in maturity stage
Entire success in appliance and adoption depends on
...
Security Threats
Unprotected tag issues
Vulnerable databases
Rogue RFID readers
Clone tags
Privacy Threats
Secret tag reading
Firm’s sensitive data hacking
Customer details pirating and
misusing
Customer purchases...
Solutions
Kill commands
Metal cage approach
Active jamming
Blocker tags
Rewritable memory
Private networks
Onion ro...
BUSINESS OPTIONS APPROACH
Present Future
Offers number of OPTIONS
• Growth - capacity to grow
• Flexibility - multiple use...
COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
PRODUCTION
Suppliers- raw materials components
components
Work- in-progress
Peterbilt trucks
20000 parts
Customer Specifie...
WAREHOUSING
Better Inventory Management
Bulk Reading- time and cost for counting stocks
Reduce idle inventory
Reduce Inven...
Retailer
Manage Stock Keeping Units
Easy inventory Handling
Reduce Out of Stock – Wal Mart
reduce out of stock by 30%
Just...
WHY RFID FOR LIBRARY?
• Fastest, easiest, most efficient way to track, locate
& manage library materials
• Efficient Book ...
LIBRARY PRODUCTS FOR
RFID• Staff station – For entry of new
books or borrowers and
issue/return of books at
circulation de...
HF Handheld Reader – For
performing activities such as shelf
order checking, shelf-reading,
searching, inventory scanning ...
BENEFITS OF USING RFID
For Libraries
Stock Management
Improved patron services
Flexibility and modularity
Security
For Lib...
• For Patrons
• Patrons will spend less time waiting in check-out lines by
using Self Check in - Check out systems
• Patro...
In early time inability to track logistics
assets caused many problem for
companies.
Returnable assets were often mispla...
 RFID Assets-tracking solutions
enable companies to better manage
their returnable assets.
 Assets track includes locati...
 In 2007 Australian business organization
completed two month pilot-test of EPC gen
2 RFID tags fixed to wooden palets
 ...
 Rewe Group reported approximately
$72 billion in revenue in 2008,
completed a test in which it employed
a RFID real time...
Benefits of using RFID to track returnable
assets
 Reduces human error
 Reduces labor and time cost
 Decrease the mispl...
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
RFID in Logistics
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RFID in Logistics

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Uses of RFID in Transportation and Logistics industry.

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RFID in Logistics

  1. 1. R F I D Radio Frequency IDentification
  2. 2. History Léon Theremin In 1945 invented an espionage tool Predecessor of RFID
  3. 3. Used in World War II to identify friendly aircrafts. (1939-1945)
  4. 4. Mario Cardullo's device in 1973 The first true ancestor of modern RFID Commercial applications began in 1980
  5. 5. Applications of RFID TRACKING SECURIT Y ANIMAL HUSBANDRY SPORTS (RACE TIMING) Libraries Inventory systems Product tracking
  6. 6. Applications of RFID
  7. 7. Basic components of a RFID system
  8. 8. Tags •This is the unit that goes with the product or its la •Tag consist of a microchip and an antenna. •Task of a tag is to send the information to the inte •There are two types of tags-Passive tags and Active
  9. 9. Passive tag Most common type of tag. These tags do not operate with batteries. The microchip in the tag will activate with the signal of the Interrogator/reader. These tags are less expensive but they can only be used within the interrogators zone.
  10. 10. Active Tags Highly expensive than the passive tags. Operate with a battery-because of that it has a higher data range and efficiency. Data transmission rate is high. Because of the battery life this tag has a finite lifetime.
  11. 11. Interrogator/Reader o Gives power to the microchip in the tag by antenna. o Receives the signals from tags. o This is connected to the host computer
  12. 12. Types of Readers Hand held RFID reader The fixed RFID reader Mobile phones with RFID reader
  13. 13. RFID printer This is a special type of a label printer which prints usual bar code and other data but also adding a RFID chip. This can write the RFID chip by way of radio transmission. The label which has bar code and also a RFID component is termed as a Smart Label.
  14. 14. Middleware o Middleware is the interface between the interrogator and the existing company databases and information management software. o Middleware manages the information flow. o Middleware is considered as the heart of the RFID system. o This can be connected with other databases to keep up to date information in the system.
  15. 15. • Absence of line of sight- RFID reader can read a tag through obstructing material that is RF-lucent for frequency use as a line of sight is not required to read a RFID tag. • Contactless- A RFID tag can be read without any physical contact between the tag and the reader.
  16. 16. • Support for multiple tag reads-it is possible to use an RFID reader to automatically read several RFID tags in its read zone within a short period of time. • Sustaining through rough operational environment conditions- such as heat, humidity, cold, corrosive chemicals, and mechanical vibrations to a fair extent. • Writable data- The data of a read/write (RW) RFID tag can be rewritten up to 100,000 (or more) times
  17. 17. • Variety of read ranges- An RFID tag can have a read range from a few inches to more than 100 ft, depending on the frequency of the tag. • Wide data capacity range- A passive RFID tag can store from a few bytes of data to hundreds of bytes. Active RFID tags can store virtually any amount of data and are not limited in their capacity range because the physical dimensions and capabilities of active tags are not limited. • Smart tasks-the tag can be designed to preform other duties like measuring temperature
  18. 18. Limitations of RIFD Performance- An RFID reader could partially or completely fail to read the tag data as a result of RF- opaque material, RF-absorbent material, or frequency interference. Environmental factors-Depending on the frequency, the read accuracy of the tags could be affected if the operations environment has large amounts of metals and liquids.
  19. 19. Actual tag reads- Because the reader has to use some kind of anti-collision algorithm, the number of actual tags that a reader can uniquely identify (per unit of time) is limited. Hardware interference- If the RFID readers are improperly installed, then it is possible for the readers to show evidence of reader collision. Penetrating power of the RF energy- it depends on the reader’s transmitting power and its duty cycle. For example, if cases on a pallet are stacked too deep, then it is possible that a reader may fail to read some of the cases
  20. 20. An organization set up to achieve worldwide adoption and standardization of Electronic Product Code technology. Objectives •Create worldwide standards for RFID. •Use internet to share data via the EPCglobal network.
  21. 21. Services Provided by EPCglobal to Its Subscribed Companies Assignment, maintenance and registration of EPC manager numbers. Participation in development of EPCglobal standards via EPCglobal’s actions and working groups. Access to EPCglobal’s standards, research and specifications. Opportunity to influence the future direction of research.
  22. 22. EPC Tag Standards Uniform Code Council, a governor of EPCglobal sets standards how basic product information are encoded in RFID.
  23. 23. A tag structure consists with a number made up of a header and three sets of data. Header- identifies the EPC’s version number Second part- identifies EPC manager (manufacturer) Third part- object class, refers to the exact type of production most often the SKU Fourth part- the serial number, unique to the item
  24. 24. EPCglobal Architecture Framework A collection of inter related standards in the aim of enhancing the supply chain through electronic product codes.
  25. 25. Overview of Few Standards EXCHANGE EPCglobal certificate profile standard Ensures broad interoperability, rapid deployment while ensuring secure usage. Pedigree standard Maintenance and exchange of electronic pedigree documents for use by pharmaceutical supply chain participants.
  26. 26. CAPTURE Application level events standards An interface for clients to obtain filtered and consolidated EPC data. Reader management standards To monitor the operating status and health of RFID readers. IDENTIFY EPC tag data standards How EPC tag data are encoded on the tag and for the use of information systems. EPC tag data translation Interpretation of machine readable version of EPC tag data standards.
  27. 27. Issues Technical Environmental Security and Privacy Financial Operational
  28. 28. Operational Issues To meet global standards, companies are being required to label cases and pallets, and sometimes individual items. As more individual items are being tagged, the challenge becomes positioning tags so they can be read within a case or pallet. Automate the tagging process because of the huge volume of individual items. Some rate of failure to read can happen. Ex-metals and liquids. Tagging of liquids and biological materials will be challenged due to the space issues on the exterior of bottles. Effect of radio waves on these products. Ex-In hospitals and health care services, RFID systems have the potential for interference with other wireless communication devices
  29. 29. Technical Issues The lack of consensus on standards. Establishing global standards is the real challenge. Ex-In the United States and Europe, EPCglobal is the standard. Asian countries use their own classification system, such as the NPC (National Product Code) in China. Japan uses a different standard that does not communicate with EPCglobal standards. Challenge of RFID implementation comes from the integration of RFID systems and the data they generate with other functional databases and applications. This challenge increases as companies integrate with supply chain partners
  30. 30. Financial Issues Cost is a major factor in determining the speed at which RFID technology is adopted. An RFID system requires expenditures not only for tags, readers, hardware, and software, but also for system maintenance and training. Ex-While consulting firms have estimated an investment of $13–25 million to implement RFID systems, it should be noted that costs are coming down. The costs of tags have steadily been decreasing from $1 per tag to around 10 cents (depending on volume purchases). The cost of readers and equipment has also decreased significantly.
  31. 31. Environmental Issues As the tag prices come down and individual items being tagged proliferate, the tags also proliferate. RFID are not biodegradable. Contain poisonous metals. A proposed solution is to set up reverse supply chains for the recycling or reuse of tags.
  32. 32. Why concern about security and privacy? RFID- still in maturity stage Entire success in appliance and adoption depends on this Big players are involved
  33. 33. Security Threats Unprotected tag issues Vulnerable databases Rogue RFID readers Clone tags
  34. 34. Privacy Threats Secret tag reading Firm’s sensitive data hacking Customer details pirating and misusing Customer purchases and habits monitoring Physical movements tracking Disrupting and misleading firm’s activities
  35. 35. Solutions Kill commands Metal cage approach Active jamming Blocker tags Rewritable memory Private networks Onion routing
  36. 36. BUSINESS OPTIONS APPROACH Present Future Offers number of OPTIONS • Growth - capacity to grow • Flexibility - multiple uses • Innovation& learning - gaining knowledge + improve data collection • Waiting - adopt universally • Abandonment - walk away from the technology
  37. 37. COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
  38. 38. PRODUCTION Suppliers- raw materials components components Work- in-progress Peterbilt trucks 20000 parts Customer Specified Finished Goods
  39. 39. WAREHOUSING Better Inventory Management Bulk Reading- time and cost for counting stocks Reduce idle inventory Reduce Inventory shrinkage Reduce Theft and loss Real Time Information
  40. 40. Retailer Manage Stock Keeping Units Easy inventory Handling Reduce Out of Stock – Wal Mart reduce out of stock by 30% Just In Time Method Demand Forecasting , Customer Trends Automated Cashier System
  41. 41. WHY RFID FOR LIBRARY? • Fastest, easiest, most efficient way to track, locate & manage library materials • Efficient Book issue management • Automatic Check-in and Check-out • Library inventory tracking in minutes instead of hours • Multiple books can be read simultaneously • Unique ID of the RFID tag stops counterfeiting • Automated material handling using conveyor & sorting systems
  42. 42. LIBRARY PRODUCTS FOR RFID• Staff station – For entry of new books or borrowers and issue/return of books at circulation desk. • Gate Detection System – For detecting unauthorized tagged items passing through it. • RFID Tags – For tagging library materials.
  43. 43. HF Handheld Reader – For performing activities such as shelf order checking, shelf-reading, searching, inventory scanning in library kind of environment self check in/ check out Kiosk – For self issue and return of books in Library. Book Return Station - For returning of library books.
  44. 44. BENEFITS OF USING RFID For Libraries Stock Management Improved patron services Flexibility and modularity Security For Library Staff Less time needed for circulation operations Efficient Inventory management Reducing Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI)
  45. 45. • For Patrons • Patrons will spend less time waiting in check-out lines by using Self Check in - Check out systems • Patrons find what they are looking for quickly & easily • Reminders for due dates allows patrons to submit borrowed materials in time • Use of book drops & return chutes for returning library material, allows for flexible timings • RFID enabled patron cards allows for easy patron identification
  46. 46. In early time inability to track logistics assets caused many problem for companies. Returnable assets were often misplaced Early system cost extra expense for employees for manual counts and quality checks.
  47. 47.  RFID Assets-tracking solutions enable companies to better manage their returnable assets.  Assets track includes location tracking, detailed inventory reports, configurable workflow and alerting features.
  48. 48.  In 2007 Australian business organization completed two month pilot-test of EPC gen 2 RFID tags fixed to wooden palets  During the pilot-test AAM software was used to manage and share the data collected  Pallets were sent through a fixed RFID reader to read the information of pallets  RFID can be used it serve as proof of deliver Case Study 1
  49. 49.  Rewe Group reported approximately $72 billion in revenue in 2008, completed a test in which it employed a RFID real time location system to track returnable assets  In Rewe distribution center’s their drivers use RFID RTL to identify the correct item is to be moved Case study 2
  50. 50. Benefits of using RFID to track returnable assets  Reduces human error  Reduces labor and time cost  Decrease the misplacement, loss, theft  Quicker, more accurate inventories and assets searching  Alert when there are suboptimal shipping conditions

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