•This is the unit that goes with the product or its la
•Tag consist of a microchip and an antenna.
•Task of a tag is to send the information to the inte
•There are two types of tags-Passive tags and Active
Most common type of tag.
These tags do not operate with batteries.
The microchip in the tag will activate with the signal
of the Interrogator/reader.
These tags are less expensive but they can only be used
within the interrogators zone.
Highly expensive than the passive tags.
Operate with a battery-because of that it has a higher
data range and efficiency.
Data transmission rate is high.
Because of the battery life this tag has a finite lifetime.
o Gives power to the microchip in the tag by antenna.
o Receives the signals from tags.
o This is connected to the host computer
Types of Readers
Hand held RFID reader
The fixed RFID reader
Mobile phones with RFID reader
This is a special type of a label printer which prints
usual bar code and other data but also adding a RFID
This can write the RFID chip by way of radio
The label which has bar code and also a RFID
component is termed as a Smart Label.
o Middleware is the interface between the interrogator
and the existing company databases and information
o Middleware manages the information flow.
o Middleware is considered as the heart of the RFID
o This can be connected with other databases to keep up
to date information in the system.
• Absence of line of sight- RFID reader can read a tag through
obstructing material that is RF-lucent for frequency use as a
line of sight is not required to read a RFID tag.
• Contactless- A RFID tag can be read without any physical
contact between the tag and the reader.
• Support for multiple tag reads-it is possible to
use an RFID reader to automatically read
several RFID tags in its read zone within a
short period of time.
• Sustaining through rough operational
environment conditions- such as heat,
humidity, cold, corrosive chemicals, and
mechanical vibrations to a fair extent.
• Writable data- The data of a read/write (RW)
RFID tag can be rewritten up to 100,000 (or
• Variety of read ranges- An RFID tag can have a
read range from a few inches to more than 100 ft,
depending on the frequency of the tag.
• Wide data capacity range- A passive RFID tag can
store from a few bytes of data to hundreds of bytes.
Active RFID tags can store virtually any amount of
data and are not limited in their capacity range
because the physical dimensions and capabilities of
active tags are not limited.
• Smart tasks-the tag can be designed to preform
other duties like measuring temperature
Limitations of RIFD
Performance- An RFID reader could partially or
completely fail to read the tag data as a result of RF-
opaque material, RF-absorbent material, or frequency
Environmental factors-Depending on the frequency, the
read accuracy of the tags could be affected if the
operations environment has large amounts of metals and
Actual tag reads- Because the reader has to use some
kind of anti-collision algorithm, the number of actual
tags that a reader can uniquely identify (per unit of time)
Hardware interference- If the RFID readers are
improperly installed, then it is possible for the readers to
show evidence of reader collision.
Penetrating power of the RF energy- it depends on the
reader’s transmitting power and its duty cycle. For
example, if cases on a pallet are stacked too deep, then it
is possible that a reader may fail to read some of the
An organization set up to achieve worldwide adoption
and standardization of Electronic Product Code
•Create worldwide standards for RFID.
•Use internet to share data via the EPCglobal network.
Services Provided by EPCglobal to
Its Subscribed Companies
Assignment, maintenance and registration of EPC
Participation in development of EPCglobal standards
via EPCglobal’s actions and working groups.
Access to EPCglobal’s standards, research and
Opportunity to influence the future direction of
EPC Tag Standards
Uniform Code Council, a governor of EPCglobal sets
standards how basic product information are encoded
A tag structure consists with a number made up of a
header and three sets of data.
Header- identifies the EPC’s version number
Second part- identifies EPC manager (manufacturer)
Third part- object class, refers to the exact type of
production most often the SKU
Fourth part- the serial number, unique to the item
EPCglobal Architecture Framework
A collection of inter related standards in the aim of
enhancing the supply chain through electronic
Overview of Few Standards
EPCglobal certificate profile standard
Ensures broad interoperability, rapid deployment while
ensuring secure usage.
Maintenance and exchange of electronic pedigree documents
for use by pharmaceutical supply chain participants.
Application level events standards
An interface for clients to obtain filtered and consolidated
Reader management standards
To monitor the operating status and health of RFID readers.
EPC tag data standards
How EPC tag data are encoded on the tag and for the use of
EPC tag data translation
Interpretation of machine readable version of EPC tag data
To meet global standards, companies are being required to
label cases and pallets, and sometimes individual items.
As more individual items are being tagged, the challenge
becomes positioning tags so they can be read within a case
Automate the tagging process because of the huge volume
of individual items.
Some rate of failure to read can happen.
Ex-metals and liquids. Tagging of liquids and biological
materials will be challenged due to the space issues on the
exterior of bottles.
Effect of radio waves on these products.
Ex-In hospitals and health care services, RFID systems have
the potential for interference with other wireless
The lack of consensus on standards.
Establishing global standards is the real challenge.
Ex-In the United States and Europe, EPCglobal is the
standard. Asian countries use their own classification
system, such as the NPC (National Product Code) in
China. Japan uses a different standard that does not
communicate with EPCglobal standards.
Challenge of RFID implementation comes from the
integration of RFID systems and the data they generate
with other functional databases and applications. This
challenge increases as companies integrate with supply
Cost is a major factor in determining the speed at which
RFID technology is adopted.
An RFID system requires expenditures not only for tags,
readers, hardware, and software, but also for system
maintenance and training.
Ex-While consulting firms have estimated an investment of
$13–25 million to implement RFID systems, it should be
noted that costs are coming down. The costs of tags have
steadily been decreasing from $1 per tag to around 10 cents
(depending on volume purchases). The cost of readers and
equipment has also decreased significantly.
As the tag prices come down and individual items
being tagged proliferate, the tags also proliferate.
RFID are not biodegradable.
Contain poisonous metals.
A proposed solution is to set up reverse supply chains
for the recycling or reuse of tags.
Why concern about security and
RFID- still in maturity stage
Entire success in appliance and adoption depends on
Big players are involved
Unprotected tag issues
Rogue RFID readers
Secret tag reading
Firm’s sensitive data hacking
Customer details pirating and
Customer purchases and habits
Physical movements tracking
Disrupting and misleading firm’s activities
Suppliers- raw materials components
Better Inventory Management
Bulk Reading- time and cost for counting stocks
Reduce idle inventory
Reduce Inventory shrinkage
Reduce Theft and loss
Real Time Information
Manage Stock Keeping Units
Easy inventory Handling
Reduce Out of Stock – Wal Mart
reduce out of stock by 30%
Just In Time Method
Demand Forecasting , Customer Trends
Automated Cashier System
WHY RFID FOR LIBRARY?
• Fastest, easiest, most efficient way to track, locate
& manage library materials
• Efficient Book issue management
• Automatic Check-in and Check-out
• Library inventory tracking in minutes instead of
• Multiple books can be read simultaneously
• Unique ID of the RFID tag stops counterfeiting
• Automated material handling using conveyor &
LIBRARY PRODUCTS FOR
RFID• Staff station – For entry of new
books or borrowers and
issue/return of books at
• Gate Detection System – For
detecting unauthorized tagged
items passing through it.
• RFID Tags – For tagging library
HF Handheld Reader – For
performing activities such as shelf
order checking, shelf-reading,
searching, inventory scanning in
library kind of environment
self check in/ check out Kiosk –
For self issue and return of books
Book Return Station - For
returning of library books.
BENEFITS OF USING RFID
Improved patron services
Flexibility and modularity
For Library Staff
Less time needed for circulation operations
Efficient Inventory management
Reducing Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI)
• For Patrons
• Patrons will spend less time waiting in check-out lines by
using Self Check in - Check out systems
• Patrons find what they are looking for quickly & easily
• Reminders for due dates allows patrons to submit borrowed
materials in time
• Use of book drops & return chutes for returning library
material, allows for flexible timings
• RFID enabled patron cards allows for easy patron
In early time inability to track logistics
assets caused many problem for
Returnable assets were often misplaced
Early system cost extra expense for
employees for manual counts and quality
RFID Assets-tracking solutions
enable companies to better manage
their returnable assets.
Assets track includes location
tracking, detailed inventory reports,
configurable workflow and alerting
In 2007 Australian business organization
completed two month pilot-test of EPC gen
2 RFID tags fixed to wooden palets
During the pilot-test AAM software was
used to manage and share the data
Pallets were sent through a fixed RFID
reader to read the information of pallets
RFID can be used it serve as proof of deliver
Rewe Group reported approximately
$72 billion in revenue in 2008,
completed a test in which it employed
a RFID real time location system to
track returnable assets
In Rewe distribution center’s their
drivers use RFID RTL to identify the
correct item is to be moved
Benefits of using RFID to track returnable
Reduces human error
Reduces labor and time cost
Decrease the misplacement, loss, theft
Quicker, more accurate inventories and
Alert when there are suboptimal shipping