Time management

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Time management

  1. 1. TIME MANAGEMENT Mr. Kautuk Dadsena Department of Business Administration & Management, SGBAU, Amravati (M.H.)
  2. 2. WHERE DO WE NEED TO SPEND OUR TIME?       Reading Books/Magazines Physical Exercise Active Hobbies Children/Family Writing Letters to Relatives/Friends Socializing & Social Work
  3. 3. SETTING GOALS & PRIORITIES        Career Status / respect Material possessions Relationships Leisure Learning Spiritual Growth
  4. 4. THE REQUIREMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Decide on Importance Check Attainment Minimize Conflict Review Priority Ensure „S M A R T‟ Criteria Enlist Support from Others Plenty of Self-Confidence
  5. 5. WRITING “SMART” GOALS Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic Time bound
  6. 6. THE PROCESS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Formulate Vision Identify Strengths & Weaknesses Research Opportunities & Threats Select Key Goals Make Action Plans Have Contingency Plan Determination to Implement
  7. 7. HOW EXECUTIVES SPEND TIME Reading, Writing, Dictating Discussions with boss, subordinates, colleagues Customers/Visitors with or without appointment Incoming/Outgoing telephone calls Meetings Travel & movement time Waiting time Searching for papers
  8. 8. HANDLING TELEPHONES          Educate callers Plan / Consolidate Calls May I help you? Take notes while talking Avoid ping-pong Use e-mail or call-back Screen appointments Have phone discussion meets Learn to terminate calls
  9. 9. HANDLING VISITORS          Quiet Hour Schedule Appointments Go to Them/Stand up Change environment (ODP) Be candid with “got taminits” Say „no‟ tactfully and firmly Use verbal/non-verbal cues Meet at reception/special room Make office optionally comfortable
  10. 10. HANDLING PAPERWORK/MAIL          Action, Information, Reading Do, delegate, delay, dump Read - Swap, Speed, Selective Write - Think, Condense, Summary Standardize Letters & Reports Manage by Exception Use Technology & Trust Telephone, Personal Contact Stop Irrelevant Mail/Subscriptions
  11. 11. MANAGING MEETINGS          Decide Objectives Circulate Agenda Select Participants Be on Time Conducive Environment Prepare Thoroughly Professional Chairmanship Action every Item Distribute “Minutes”
  12. 12. IMPORTANT Vs URGENT MATRIX 1 3 I. URGENT & IMPORTANT III. URGENT BUT NOT IMPORTANT 2 4 II. NOT URGENT BUT IMPORTANT IV. NOT URGENT NOT IMPORTANT
  13. 13. Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things which matter least Goethe
  14. 14. Put first things First Put First Thingsfirst!!!
  15. 15. Organizing Yourself Start with a Yearly Calendar Don’t forget to schedule in time to satisfy all roles Consistently Develop Weekly and Daily Plans
  16. 16. ORGANISE YOURSELF          Have a daily „To-do‟ List Focus on „A‟ not „C‟ priorities Understand boss‟s/organisation‟s priorities Consult goals for allocation for time/energy Schedule for week/month – advance planning Look for “Do” instead of “Due” date Prepare „PERT‟ for large assignments Manage relationships/network for support Decide priority based on need, not sycophancy
  17. 17. MANAGING BOTTLE-NECKS      Be a squeaking wheel Bypass the system Announce that you will take action Make it a matter of honor Use positive reinforcement
  18. 18. AVOIDING CRISES      Start early enough Clear communication – no misunderstandings Periodic status reports for early warning Follow-through after delegating Make a contingency plan
  19. 19. ENDING YOUR WORK-DAY   Tidy up Evaluate your day Was I proactive or reactive? Did I establish & accomplish my major goal? Did others intrude unduly on my time? Was I guilty of wheel spinning activities? If I were to live this day over, what would I do?  Plan the next day‟s activities
  20. 20. ASSERTIVENESS  Assertiveness is the ability to communicate your needs, feelings, opinions, and beliefs in an open and honest manner without violating the rights of others
  21. 21. ASSERTIVENESS 1. 2. 3. Is not the same as aggressive behaviour Aggressive behaviour enhances self at the expense of others Assertiveness produces positive outcomes for all; Aggressive acts result in negative outcomes
  22. 22. WHAT WILL IT DO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Increases self-confidence Elevates self-esteem Gain respect of others Improves communication Enhances decision-making ability
  23. 23. Examples of Passive Behaviour        Avoiding eye contact Quiet, strained voice Sentences not finished Nervous movements - fiddling with objects Physically backing away Apologizing a lot Agreeing without questioning
  24. 24. Examples of Aggressive behaviors         Glaring/staring Loud voice Lots of interruptions Finger wagging Hands on hips Physically moving towards the other person Blaming Stating opinions as facts
  25. 25. HOW TO BE ASSERTIVE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Be honest & direct about your needs & feelings Express yourself firmly & directly Be reasonable in your requests State your viewpoint without being apologetic Be honest when giving or receiving feedback Learn to say “no” to unreasonable expectations Paraphrase what others have stated to you
  26. 26. HOW TO BE ASSERTIVE 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Recognize & respect the rights of those around you Use appropriate tome of voice Be aware of body posture and body language Maintain eye contact Use “I” statements to express self Don‟t let others impose their values/ideas on you Encourage others to be clear and direct Take ownership
  27. 27. What Is Stress?  Stress  Psychological, Emotional, Physiological Response  Stressors  Threatening Environmental Conditions
  28. 28. Why Is Stress Management Important?   Organizational Costs Individual Costs  Health Impairment  Job Burnout  Performance Decline
  29. 29. Exhibit 6.1: Relationship Between Stress and Job Performance
  30. 30. Experiencing stress STRESSORS REACTIONS Anticipatory, Encounter,Time, Situational Physiological, Psycholo gical RESILIENCY Physical Psychological Social
  31. 31. Exhibit 6.2: Model of the Stress Management Process Potential Stressors Personal Factors Family problems Financial problems Health problems Organizational Factors High stress occupation Job role Overload Under-utilization Role ambiguity Role conflict Responsibility for others Job Environment Poor working conditions Organizational politics Poor work relationships Environmental Factors Economic Uncertainty Technological Change Politics Experienced Stress (SYMPTOM AWARENESS) Stress Management Individual Seek help Time management Change jobs Build resiliency Personality Companionship Experience Health (Exercise, diet) Relaxation Recreation Organizational Job Design Selection & Placement Training & Mentoring Team Building Employee Assistance Communicating Wellness Promotion Consequences Psychological Heart Disease Ulcers Headaches Emotional Anxiety Depression Burnout Behavioral Aggression Productivity Avoidance Successful Coping High self esteem Goal accomplishment Feeling of well being
  32. 32. Managing Stress: Objectives     Becoming Aware of Negative Stress Symptoms Determining the Sources Determining the Cause And then…  Cope temporarily with the stress  Eliminate stressors  Develop resiliency
  33. 33. How Can Awareness of Stress Symptoms Be Enhanced?   Physical Symptoms Psychological Substitutes Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always Constant fatigue [] [] [] [] [] Low energy level [] [] [] [] [] Recurring headaches [] [] [] [] [] Gastrointestinal disorders [] [] [] [] [] Bad breath [] [] [] [] [] Sweaty hands or feet [] [] [] [] [] Dizziness [] [] [] [] [] High blood pressure [] [] [] [] [] Pounding heart [] [] [] [] []
  34. 34. Types of Stressors: Causes     Time Encounter Situational Anticipatory
  35. 35. Managing Stress Eliminate Stressors Develop Resiliency Temporary coping mechanisms Permanent effects Enactive approach Long time required Long term Short term Proactive approach Moderate time required Reactive approach Immediate
  36. 36. Resiliency:  Physiological  Cardiovascular conditioning  Proper diet  Social  Supportive  Mentors  teamwork relations Psychological –Balanced lifestyle –Hardy personality –Small wins strategy –Relaxation techniques
  37. 37. Short term strategies   Reframing Imagery
  38. 38. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Time Stressors  Work overload  Lack of control  Elimination Strategies  Principles of time management  Delegation
  39. 39. Eliminating time stressors: Time management  “Effective time management can enable managers to gain control over their time and organize their fragmented, chaotic environment.”
  40. 40. Effective time management means…     Spending time on important, not just urgent matters Distinguishing clearly between importance and urgency Focusing on results not methods Not feeling guilty when saying no
  41. 41. Effective time management URGENCY IMPORTANCE High High Low Low
  42. 42. 80/20 Rule Activities Time Spent Results Trivial 80% 20% Vital 20% 80%
  43. 43. Efficient time management   Too little time; too much to do How do I get more done?
  44. 44. Schedule  Schedule Activities • Horizontal Scheduling • Vertical Scheduling • Directing and Controlling
  45. 45. Rules           Read selectively Make lists Everything in its place Prioritize Multitask the routine Discretionary task jar Divide up the big jobs Critical 20% Best time for important jobs Arrange non-interrupted time           Don‟t procrastinate Keep track of time Set deadlines Use waiting time Designate time for busy work Closure on one thing a day Schedule personal time Limit worry time Long term objectives Continuous improvement
  46. 46. Tips for managers         Hold routine meetings at end of day Set time limit Hold meetings only if needed Agendas, minutes Start on time Paper work decisions Organize Limit interruptions
  47. 47.    Delegate Empowerment: allow for initiative Give credit to those who deserve it
  48. 48. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Encounter Stressors: Role Conflicts  Issue  Interaction   Elimination Strategies: Delegation  Interpersonal skills    Conflict resolution Resilience  Social support; Collaboration   Self awareness EQ
  49. 49. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Situational Stressors:  Unfavourable  Rapid  working conditions change Elimination Strategies:  Work redesign  Changing jobs   Short term Strategies resiliency
  50. 50. Work redesign     Level of task demand Level of autonomy (individual control & discretion) Level of interest Feedback
  51. 51. Types of stressors and what we can do about them  Anticipatory Stressors:  Unpleasant expectations  Fear  Elimination Strategies:  Time management  Priorities;   planning Short term strategies Resiliency
  52. 52. Stress and Self awareness     Values Attitude towards change Cognitive style Interpersonal orientation
  53. 53. “THERE IS MORE TO LIFE THAN INCREASING ITS SPEED.” Mahatma Gandhi
  54. 54. THANK YOU

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