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Graphene!!! the futuristic element


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GRAPHENE is the trending element in recent days. Graphene is a type of graphite mineral. Experts often call it 'The Material of the 21st Century' because of its special properties. Some U.S. companies are already using graphene for new technology products.

Graphene is often described as a one-atom-thick layer of carbon. The material has some extraordinary properties. It is 100 times stronger than steel of the same thickness. The nearly transparent material also carries heat and electricity very well.

Dan Scheffer is vice-president of the manufacturing company, Vorbeck Materials.

"This material has so many potential applications that you don't know where to start to look in the beginning."

Mr. Scheffer says 100 percent pure graphene is difficult to make. But he adds manufacturers can make graphene of lesser purity that still has many of the features of the pure version. Mr. Scheffer says his company produces a layer of graphene that is 80 percent pure.

Graphene can be mixed into ink for printers. Stretchable parts can be printed for products such as antennas for radio frequency identification circuits.

Louise Brooks is the manager of the product development team at Vorbeck Materials. She says graphene can even be used on wearable electronic clothing. She says the clothing can be washed and dried in a machine without damaging the graphene.

The new material can also be used to make very sensitive microphones. Ray Sauro is a chemical engineer at Vorbeck Materials. He says a graphene membrane less than one micron thick can pick up vibrations that no other kind of membrane can.

"And, it has a working range of less than one hertz to 200,000 hertz. The human ear for example can hear from about 15 hertz to 20,000 hertz. So, way beyond anything you can hear."

The microphone picks up the sound from light that reflects off a vibrating graphene membrane. This prevents any radio or magnetic interference.

Mr. Sauro says graphene membranes can resist vibrations and heat. He adds that the membranes are not costly to manufacture. Mr. Sauro imagines the automotive industry will be able to use graphene products in vehicles to collect information about engine health. He says such products would not cost more than $300.

Published in: Engineering
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Graphene!!! the futuristic element

  1. 1. By, Koushi B.T VI ECA
  2. 2. OVERVIEW  Let us know GRAPHENE Structure Properties What makes Graphene different from others? Applications Potential applications Challenges Conclusion
  3. 3. So What is Graphene? World’s first 2D crystal. Latest invented allotrope of Carbon. Thinnest ever material in the world. Obtained from simple and abundant form of carbon Single layer hexagonal structure. Konstantin Novoselow and Andre Geim ,Nobel prize for Physics in 2010.
  4. 4. Structure of Graphene Sheets of graphene are bonded by loose bond in graphite.  These bonds are broken and sheets are isolated to form graphene. These isolated hexagonal sheets are Graphene.
  5. 5. PROPERTIES Breaking Strength 42N/m, 1000 times stronger than steel. Thinnest possible material. High Electrical and Thermal conductivity. Absorbs 2.3% of light falling on it. Transparent, Elastic.
  6. 6. What makes Graphene different from others? Unique structure All in one properties Low cost Abundant element Simple fabrication techniques Chemically inert Thermal stability
  7. 7. APPLICATIONS  Electrical Engineering • Can replace graphite in brushes of motors. • It can replace copper as conducting material. • When mixed with plastic can be used as conductor with higher strength  Mechanical Engineering • In manufacturing process as manufacturing material. • As a composite material in machines and cars. • Air planes, space shuttles, satellites.
  8. 8. Electronics Engineering  Will replace or rejuvenate silicon and germanium as device material.  Conducting material on PCBs.  Single molecule sensors.  Touchscreens.  IBM in 2010, 1ST Graphene transistors.  Graphene Integrated Circuits.  Graphene chips.
  9. 9. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS Solar cells Graphene biodevices Nano gaps in Graphene sheets may provide new technique for rapid DNA sequencing. Transparent conducting electrodes. Water desalination. Graphene based sensors could sniff out dangerous molecules.
  10. 10. CHALLENGES Unlike silicon, graphene does not have an energy gap, and therefore graphene cannot be swithched off resulting in a small on/off ratio. Single sheet of graphene is hard to produce. New fabrication methods has to be evolved for normal use in electronics.
  11. 11. CONCLUSION  Graphene is a new hope for electronic devices and could replace or rejuvenate silicon based devices.  Successful prototypes include superconductors, flexible displays and ultra-capacitor.  It shall introduce new era of devices for electronics, space, bio-medical and energy harvesting.  Graphene devices might surround us very soon.
  12. 12. THANK YOU