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GANDHINAGAR INSTITUTE OF 
TECHNOLOGY 
Elements of Civil Engineering 
Presentation on 
“Geographical Information System” 
P...
Flow of Presentation 
1. Introduction to GIS 
2. History of Development 
3. Key Components of GIS 
4. GIS Processes 
5. 4 ...
Introduction to GIS 
GEOGRAPHIC 
implies that locations of the data items are known, or can be 
calculated, in terms of Ge...
A Model of GIS
• Allow users to create interactive queries. 
• Analyze spatial information 
• Edit data in maps. 
• Geographic concepts, ...
The x, y and z axis representating the longitude, latitude, 
and elevation, respectively
History of Development 
• John Snow's 1855 map of the Soho cholera in the London. 
 1966 GIS demonstrated by Howard 
Fish...
GIS concepts 
 London cholera epidemic 1854 
8 
Soho 
+ 
Cholera death 
Water pump
 1986 MapInfo developed 
 1986 SPOT satellite was launched. 
 1992 the Lebanon used GIS to 
rebuild electricity network...
KEY COMPONENTS OF GIS
1. Hardware:- 
• Used in stand-alone or networked configurations. 
• Chief part of GIS such as Computer etc. 
• Help to ru...
4.People:- 
• Developers and users are quiet important. 
• Ranges from Specialists to Normal Users. 
5. Procedures:- 
• Dr...
Capture 
Data 
GIS Process 
Register 
Map Base 
Interpret 
Data 
Convert Data 
to Digital 
Format 
Store Data 
in Computer...
4 M’s of GIS
Land Use Environmental 
Cadastral 4 M’s 
Assessment 
Agriculture Drainage Network 
Hydrology Model Terrains 
Measurement 
...
Contribution Disciplines
Mathematics 
GIS 
Geography 
Cartography 
CAD,CAM 
Automated 
Cartography 
Surveying 
Photographical 
Digital 
Photogramme...
Applications of GIS 
1. Agriculture 
 Farm management 
 Pest/Disease tracking 
 Crop monitoring 
 Yield prediction 
 ...
2. Natural Resource Management 
 Forestry 
 Ecology 
 Mining 
 Petroleum 
 Water Resources
3.Planning and Economic Development 
 Land Use/Zoning 
 Emergency Preparedness 
 Population Forecast 
 Market Analysis...
4. Geography Matters 
Today’s challenges require geographic approach 
 Climate Change 
 Urban Growth 
 Sustainable Agri...
5.Vehicle Routing
6. Land Use Planning and Management 
Map of Ahmedabad City through GIS
7.Environmental Applications 
• Land cover and land use analysis 
• Modelling watersheds 
• Soil Erosion 
• Forest managem...
8.Business Applications 
• Delivery of goods and services 
• Retail store placement 
• Distribution of competitors 
• Loca...
Expenditures using costumer market data
Literature Review 
L 
TOPIC:- 
An overview of 
“Geographic Information 
System" and its role and 
applicability in 
Enviro...
Literature Review 
L 
TOPIC:- 
Developing a Web-based 
GIS Application 
for Earthquake 
Information 
Author :- 
A. Garagon...
Literature Review 
L 
TOPIC:- 
GIS Technology for 
Disasters 
and Emergency 
Management 
Author :- 
Russ Johnson 
Volume 1...
Literature Review 
TOPIC:- 
GIS and Transportation: 
Status and Challenges 
It is designed to allow viewing, querying, and...
References 
Websites:- 
www.google.com 
www.wikipedia.org 
www.mtf.stuba.sk 
ncgia.ucsb.edu 
www.isprs.org 
Journals:- 
Re...
Gis powerpoint
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This is most benificial for the First year Engineering students.This presentation consists of videos and many applications of GIS. The processes and the other parts of GIS is also nicely explained.

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Gis powerpoint

  1. 1. GANDHINAGAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Elements of Civil Engineering Presentation on “Geographical Information System” Prepared By:- Vedant Dave 140120119247 Vivek Verma 140120119248 Kuldeep Tiwari 140120119233 Prahar Vyas 140120119251 Nilesh Sharma 140120119215 Guided By:- Mrs. Priyanka Mehta Mrs. Ankita Shah
  2. 2. Flow of Presentation 1. Introduction to GIS 2. History of Development 3. Key Components of GIS 4. GIS Processes 5. 4 M’s of GIS 6. Contribution Disciplines of GIS 7. Applications of GIS 8. Research Papers
  3. 3. Introduction to GIS GEOGRAPHIC implies that locations of the data items are known, or can be calculated, in terms of Geographic coordinates (Latitude, Longitude) INFORMATION implies that the data in a GIS are organized to yield useful knowledge, often as colored maps and images, but also as statistical graphics, tables, and various on-screen responses to interactive queries. SYSTEM implies that a GIS is made up from several inter-related and linked components with different functions. Thus, GIS have functional capabilities for data capture, input, manipulation, transformation, visualization, combinations, query, analysis, modelling and output.
  4. 4. A Model of GIS
  5. 5. • Allow users to create interactive queries. • Analyze spatial information • Edit data in maps. • Geographic concepts, applications, and systems. • Refers to a number of different technologies, processes, and methods. • Foundation for many location-enabled services that rely on analysis and visualization. • Relate unrelated information. • RecordsLocations or extents in the Earth space–time.
  6. 6. The x, y and z axis representating the longitude, latitude, and elevation, respectively
  7. 7. History of Development • John Snow's 1855 map of the Soho cholera in the London.  1966 GIS demonstrated by Howard Fisher  1969 ESRI founded  1970’s satellites aid GPS  1971 GIS project used a layering system to display data  1979 Odessy developed
  8. 8. GIS concepts  London cholera epidemic 1854 8 Soho + Cholera death Water pump
  9. 9.  1986 MapInfo developed  1986 SPOT satellite was launched.  1992 the Lebanon used GIS to rebuild electricity network the
  10. 10. KEY COMPONENTS OF GIS
  11. 11. 1. Hardware:- • Used in stand-alone or networked configurations. • Chief part of GIS such as Computer etc. • Help to run centralized computer servers to desktop 2. Software:- •Analyse and display geographic information. •Provides function and tools needed. 3. Data:- •Collects the geographic and other tabular data •It assemble to use specifications and requirements •Integrate spatial data with other existing data resources •Key functionality is to store the data.
  12. 12. 4.People:- • Developers and users are quiet important. • Ranges from Specialists to Normal Users. 5. Procedures:- • Drafting Designs • Implementing Plans • Integration into the business strategy and operation • Requires necessary investments in hardware and software
  13. 13. Capture Data GIS Process Register Map Base Interpret Data Convert Data to Digital Format Store Data in Computer Process Data Display Results
  14. 14. 4 M’s of GIS
  15. 15. Land Use Environmental Cadastral 4 M’s Assessment Agriculture Drainage Network Hydrology Model Terrains Measurement Mapping Monitoring Modelling
  16. 16. Contribution Disciplines
  17. 17. Mathematics GIS Geography Cartography CAD,CAM Automated Cartography Surveying Photographical Digital Photogrammetry Remote Sensing Technology Statistics
  18. 18. Applications of GIS 1. Agriculture  Farm management  Pest/Disease tracking  Crop monitoring  Yield prediction  Soil analysis
  19. 19. 2. Natural Resource Management  Forestry  Ecology  Mining  Petroleum  Water Resources
  20. 20. 3.Planning and Economic Development  Land Use/Zoning  Emergency Preparedness  Population Forecast  Market Analysis  Property Tax Assessment  Transportation
  21. 21. 4. Geography Matters Today’s challenges require geographic approach  Climate Change  Urban Growth  Sustainable Agriculture  Water Quality and Availability  International and National Security  Energy  Epidemiology/Disease Tracking  Natural Hazards: Seismicity, Weather Events
  22. 22. 5.Vehicle Routing
  23. 23. 6. Land Use Planning and Management Map of Ahmedabad City through GIS
  24. 24. 7.Environmental Applications • Land cover and land use analysis • Modelling watersheds • Soil Erosion • Forest management • Conservation and Protected Areas Marine Map
  25. 25. 8.Business Applications • Delivery of goods and services • Retail store placement • Distribution of competitors • Location of potential customers • Traffic flow • Parking locations
  26. 26. Expenditures using costumer market data
  27. 27. Literature Review L TOPIC:- An overview of “Geographic Information System" and its role and applicability in Environmental Monitoring and Process Modelling Author:- Miroslav Rusko, Roman Chovanec, Dana Roskova Volume 29 Edition :- 1st Year:- 2010 Methodology Used:- Result/Conclusion:- GIS system are the powerful and effective tool for creating intelligent maps. The system functions only when the requisite expertise is available, the data are compiled, the necessary routines are organized, and the programs are modified to suit the application, and/or the organization’s needs. GIS integrates all kinds of information and applications with a geographic component into one manageable system. The hardware and software functions of GIS include:- • Data input • Data storage • Data management (data manipulation, updating, changing, exchange) • Data reporting (retrieval, presentation, analysis, combination, etc.). All of these actions and operations are applied to GIS as a tool that forms its database.
  28. 28. Literature Review L TOPIC:- Developing a Web-based GIS Application for Earthquake Information Author :- A. Garagon Dogru , T. Selcuk , H. Ozener, O. Gurkan, G. Toz Volume 1 Edition :- 1st Year:- NA Methodology Used:- Result/Conclusion:- It is designed to allow viewing, querying, and analysis of geographic information. This application is a software independent System. It offers maximum functionality with the minimum effort. The drawback in such a distributed system is that data come from different sources based on different forms and datas which cause havoc in a GIS. The response time for generating maps is related to the map server configuration (memory, disk, and processor). This paper focuses on development and implementation of a web-based GIS application for earthquake information. Methods used:- • Integrating various data from different sources. • Provides public users to access information. • Gathers information about Earthquakes doing spatial and attribute query. • Easy data management including maintenance and updating.
  29. 29. Literature Review L TOPIC:- GIS Technology for Disasters and Emergency Management Author :- Russ Johnson Volume 1 Edition :- 1st Year:- May 2000 Methodology Used:- Result/Conclusion:- This paper will identify emergency management activities and describe how GIS technology plays a critically important role. Methods Used:- • Information analysis • Mapping • Emergency management planning • Planning Implementation • Modifications in Planning •Data Reporting GIS allows emergency management needs to be identified prior to an incident. Emergency management personnel can use modeling for training, for actual tactical deployment during a disaster, or to analyze the consequences of a possible disaster. In short, the thoughtful application of a GIS can take much of the panic and surprise out of emergencies.
  30. 30. Literature Review TOPIC:- GIS and Transportation: Status and Challenges It is designed to allow viewing, querying, and analysis of geographic information. Author:- Michael F. Goodchild Volume 1 Edition :- 1st Methodology Used:- Result/Conclusion:- Database designs have been influenced by a number of historical practices and traditions, and three of these have been of particular significance to GIS: map, navigation, and the study of behavior. Six research challenges have been identified, ranging from the technical issues of representation and unambiguous communication of location to the economic modeling of GIS data creation and use. The application of GIS in transportation, dates from the very earliest in the 1960s. Methods Used:- • The mapping • The navigation • Unambiguous communication • Connectivity • Response to new technologies • Map Implementation • Map Recovery
  31. 31. References Websites:- www.google.com www.wikipedia.org www.mtf.stuba.sk ncgia.ucsb.edu www.isprs.org Journals:- Research Papers Authors GIS and its role and applicability in Environmental Monitoring and Process Modelling Developing a Web-based GIS Application for Earthquake Info. GIS Technology for Disasters and Emergency Management GIS and Transportation: Status and Challenges Miroslav Rusko, Roman Chovanec, Dana Roskova A. Garagon Dogru , T. Selcuk , H. Ozener, O. Gurkan, G. Toz Russ Johnson Michael F. Goodchild 1. 2. 3. 4. Books:- R.B.Khasiya
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This is most benificial for the First year Engineering students.This presentation consists of videos and many applications of GIS. The processes and the other parts of GIS is also nicely explained.

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