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 Hardware is the physical component of a computer
system. It refers to the electromechanical parts and
devices that make up a computer. Generally, hardware is
categorized according to which of the five basic
computer operation it performs:
 Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU,
a processor, or a microprocessor
 Memory (RAM)
 Storage Devices
 Input Devices
 Output Devices
 Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a
processor or a microprocessor
 Memory (RAM)
 Storage Devices
 Input Devices
 Output Devices
 Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a
processor or a microprocessor
 Memory (RAM)
 Storage Devices
 Input Devices
 Output Devices
 Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a
processor or a microprocessor
 Memory (RAM)
 Storage Devices
 Input Devices
 Output Devices
 CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of
a computer.
 CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes
instructions and data.
 CPU types.
 Intel Pentium II, III, IV
 Intel Celeron
 AMD Athlon
 CPU speed is measured by the number of completed
instruction cycles per second Currently, CPU speeds
range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per
second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).
 Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type
and speed before purchasing
RAM or Random Access Memory
 “Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.
 Holds instructions for processing data, processed data,
and raw data.
 Ram is measured by:
 Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)
 Speed (in Nanoseconds)
 Amount of RAM installed will determine.
Which software applications will run (efficiently)?
How many software applications can be open
simultaneously (multitasking ability)?
 RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install.
Check your computer manual for RAM type (DIMM,
SDRAM) and speed (100, 90ns).
 All software applications will have RAM specifications
listed on their packaging.
 Many applications list both a minimum and a
recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the
software.
 Be cautious about buying software for a system based
on minimum requirement.
 Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save
instructions and data.
 Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of
storage devices.
 Capacity and speed are important considerations when
selecting a new storage device for a PC.
 Magnetic storage devices store data by
magnetizing particles on a disk or tape.
They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years,
depending on the device.
 Optical storage devices store data as light
and dark spots on the disk surface. They
have an unlimited life-span.
Hard Disk Drives
 Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of
bytes).
 Typically permanently installed.
 Used to store operating system, application software,
utilities and data.
 Magnetic storage device.
Floppy Disk Drives
• Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or
millions of bytes).
– Storage device with the smallest
capacity
– Most portable storage media
• Magnetic storage device.
CD-ROM Drives
 Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were
add-on device until the mid 1990’s).
 Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes
(MB or millions of bytes).
 Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged
on a CD.
CD-ROM Drives
 Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW
(read/write) technology has become less expensive.
 Data is read from CD by a laser.
 Optical storage device.
Other Types of Drives
 Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.
 Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups,
becoming less common.
 DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a
standard device on new computer systems.
 Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be
supplied from a variety of sources:
 A person
 A storage device on computer
 Another computer
 A peripheral device
 Another piece of equipment, such as a musical
instrument or thermometer
 Input devices gather and translate data into a form the
computer understands.
 Primary input device:
 Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type
in commands and data.
 Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input
commands, manipulate text, images.
 Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or
assistive input device.
 Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users
to import:
 Text
 Graphics
 Images
 Specialized software aids in translating information into
a format the computer can understand and manipulate.
• Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices
that allow users to create pictures and/or
movies in a digital format.
– Some require specialized
software to import images
into the computer.
– Some record digital images directly to a disk
that can be read by the computer.
• Monitors are the most commonly used output device.
• Most monitors use a bitmap display.
– Allows user to resize the display.
– Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square “dots” called
pixels.
– The more “dots” a screen can display, the higher the
resolution of the monitor.
• Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port
integrated on the video adapter or graphics card.
• Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to
analog data for display on monitors.
Typically have additional memory chips on card, 4MB to 64MB.
Printers
• Dot matrix
– Seldom used in a classroom.
– Still frequently used in business.
• Bubble or ink jet
• Laser
Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from
a computer system on a larger screen for whole-class instruction.
#KaushalJigar
1. Kaushal Mehta … ..twitter@kaushalmehta96
2. Jigar Patel … .. twitter@jigarpatel_jp

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ICT, Basic of Computer, Hardware, Various parts of computer hardware, What is hardware?, CPU Types

  • 1.
  • 2.  Hardware is the physical component of a computer system. It refers to the electromechanical parts and devices that make up a computer. Generally, hardware is categorized according to which of the five basic computer operation it performs:
  • 3.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor, or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  • 4.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  • 5.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  • 6.  Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a processor or a microprocessor  Memory (RAM)  Storage Devices  Input Devices  Output Devices
  • 7.  CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of a computer.  CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes instructions and data.  CPU types.  Intel Pentium II, III, IV  Intel Celeron  AMD Athlon
  • 8.  CPU speed is measured by the number of completed instruction cycles per second Currently, CPU speeds range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per second) to 4 gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per second).  Always check new software’s requirements for CPU type and speed before purchasing
  • 9. RAM or Random Access Memory  “Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.  Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data.  Ram is measured by:  Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)  Speed (in Nanoseconds)
  • 10.  Amount of RAM installed will determine. Which software applications will run (efficiently)? How many software applications can be open simultaneously (multitasking ability)?  RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to install. Check your computer manual for RAM type (DIMM, SDRAM) and speed (100, 90ns).
  • 11.  All software applications will have RAM specifications listed on their packaging.  Many applications list both a minimum and a recommended amount of RAM necessary to run the software.  Be cautious about buying software for a system based on minimum requirement.
  • 12.  Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save instructions and data.  Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of storage devices.  Capacity and speed are important considerations when selecting a new storage device for a PC.
  • 13.  Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years, depending on the device.  Optical storage devices store data as light and dark spots on the disk surface. They have an unlimited life-span.
  • 14. Hard Disk Drives  Capacity is measured in gigabytes (GB or billions of bytes).  Typically permanently installed.  Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data.  Magnetic storage device.
  • 15. Floppy Disk Drives • Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes). – Storage device with the smallest capacity – Most portable storage media • Magnetic storage device.
  • 16. CD-ROM Drives  Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-on device until the mid 1990’s).  Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes (MB or millions of bytes).  Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a CD.
  • 17. CD-ROM Drives  Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW (read/write) technology has become less expensive.  Data is read from CD by a laser.  Optical storage device.
  • 18. Other Types of Drives  Zip Drives – Several different capacities are available.  Tape Drives – Generally used for system backups, becoming less common.  DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more common as a standard device on new computer systems.
  • 19.  Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be supplied from a variety of sources:  A person  A storage device on computer  Another computer  A peripheral device  Another piece of equipment, such as a musical instrument or thermometer
  • 20.  Input devices gather and translate data into a form the computer understands.  Primary input device:  Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type in commands and data.  Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input commands, manipulate text, images.  Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device.
  • 21.  Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users to import:  Text  Graphics  Images  Specialized software aids in translating information into a format the computer can understand and manipulate.
  • 22. • Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices that allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a digital format. – Some require specialized software to import images into the computer. – Some record digital images directly to a disk that can be read by the computer.
  • 23. • Monitors are the most commonly used output device. • Most monitors use a bitmap display. – Allows user to resize the display. – Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square “dots” called pixels. – The more “dots” a screen can display, the higher the resolution of the monitor.
  • 24. • Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port integrated on the video adapter or graphics card. • Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to analog data for display on monitors. Typically have additional memory chips on card, 4MB to 64MB.
  • 25. Printers • Dot matrix – Seldom used in a classroom. – Still frequently used in business. • Bubble or ink jet • Laser
  • 26. Projection systems or classroom TVs can display information from a computer system on a larger screen for whole-class instruction.
  • 27. #KaushalJigar 1. Kaushal Mehta … ..twitter@kaushalmehta96 2. Jigar Patel … .. twitter@jigarpatel_jp