INTRODUCTION Quantum cryptography , or quantum key distribution (QKD), uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string known only to them, which can be used as a key to encrypt and decrypt messages
FLOW OF SEMINAR HISTORY APPROACHES INFORMATION RECONCILATION PRIVACY AMPLIFICATION ADVANTAGES ATTACKS FUTURE SCOPE (PROSPECTS) QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY RESEARCH GROUP COMPANIES WITH RESEARCH PROGRAM
TERMS PHOTON :--It is the elementry particle responsible for electromagnetic phenomena.It is the carrier of electromagnetic radiations. QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT :--It is a physical resource like energy.It can be measured,transformed and purified.
HISTORY In the early 1970 Stephen Wiesner , firstly introduced the concept of quantum conjugate coding in New York. His seminal paper titled &quot;Conjugate Coding&quot; was rejected by IEEE Information Theory but was eventually published in 1983 in SIGACT News (15:1 pp. 78-88, 1983). A decade later, Charles H. Bennett , of the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center , and Gilles Brassard , of the Université de Montréal, proposed a method for secure communication based on Wiesner’s “conjugate observables”. In 1990, Artur Ekert , then a Ph.D. student of Oxford University , developed a different approach to quantum cryptography known as quantum entanglement.
APPROACHES Quantum cryptographic follows two type of Quantum cryptographic protocol. Polarized photons Entangled photons
INFORMATION RECONCILATION Information reconciliation is a form of error correction carried out between Alice and Bob's keys,(to ensure both keys are identical). It is conducted over the public channel. It is vital to minimise the information sent about each key( as this can be read by Eve). A common protocol used is cascade protocol , proposed in 1994
PRIVACY AMPLIFICATION Privacy Amplification is a method for reducing (and effectively eliminating) Eve's partial information about Alice and Bob's key. This partial information could have been gained both by eavesdropping on the quantum channel during key transmission (thus introducing detectable errors), and on the public channel during information reconciliation (where it is assumed Eve gains all possible parity information). Privacy amplification uses Alice and Bob's key to produce a new, shorter key, in such a way that Eve has only negligible information about the new key.
ADVANTAGES IT MAKES POSSIBLE TO PERFORM A 2-ION OPERATION ON IONS THAT ARE NOT CLOSE TO ONE ANOTHER. IT INCREASES THE COMPUTER’S ERROR THRESHOLD WHICH MEANS COMPUTERS WOULD BE EASIER TO MAKE. STATE OF AN ION CAN BE STORED FOR A LONG TIME. THIS PROCESS IS RELIABLE AND THE STATE THAT HAS BEEN TELEPORTED IS AVAILABLE FOR ANOTHER ROUND OF INFORMATION PROCESSING.
ATTACKS In Quantum Cryptography, traditional man-in-the-middle attacks are impossible due to the Observer Effect . If Alice and Bob are using an entangled photon system, then it is virtually impossible to hijack these, because creating three entangled photons would decrease the strength of each photon to such a degree that it would be easily detected.
FUTURE SCOPE (PROSPECTS) The experiments suggests transmission to satellites is possible, due to the lower atmospheric density at higher altitudes. The current commercial systems are aimed mainly at governments and corporations with high security requirements. Factors preventing wide adoption of quantum cryptography outside high security areas include the cost of equipment, and the lack of a demonstrated threat to existing key exchange protocols.
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY RESEARCH GROUP Experimental Quantum Cryptography with Entangled Photons NIST Quantum Information Networks
COMPANIES WITH RESEARCH PROGRAM Toshiba HP IBM Mitsubishi NEC NTT