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ShoppingScapes´13, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias
Lisboa, May 2013
The Alcaicería of Granada (Spain)
F...
“We have been everywhere. We have seen nothing”
Humbet Humbert in Lolita (Nabokov, 1955)
- Introduction: A postcard from G...
Alcaicería. Video by David Snakeskin, 20012 / courtesy of the artist http://vimeo.com/46514906
La Alcaicería, Granada, Spain. 2013
Introduction: a postcard from Granada
Granada
Lisbon
Granada, Spain
Granada
272,730 inhabitants (2011)
Granada: midsized city
Albaicín
Alhambra
Centro
Touristic areas in Granada
Alhambra
Cathedral
Most visited monuments: Alhambra & Cathedral [Source: Observatorio Turístico de Granada, 2010]
Alhambra:
2.200,000 visitors (2012)
Alhambra, hotspot [Source: Patronato Alhambra, 2012]
Most visited monuments in Spain: Alhambra, Prado, Sagrada Familia
Granada
Madrid
Barcelona
Medieval Arabs geographers and
travellers
- Abd al-Malik ben Habib (853)
-Ahmad ben Muhammad ben
Musa al Razi (885-955)
-A...
Time Lapse Alhambra Sunset, 2012. Video by David Snakeskin, 20012 / courtesy of the artist http://vimeo.com/46514905
The m...
El cuento de la Alhambra, 2006. Valeriano López / Courtesy of the artist
The romantic and the collective tourist gaze
The ‘silk trade’ adds extra, more fanciful connotations to the Alcaicería
Roman fresco / ‘Silk route’ map (Wikipedia) / Ch...
What is an Alcaicería? The origin
ḲAYSĀRIYYA: the name of a large system of public buildings laid out in the form of cloisters
with shops, workshops, wareho...
Places derive from kaysariyya
-Cairo
-Beirut
-Damascus
- Aleppo
- Mosul
-Al-Salamiyya
-Irbil
-Baghdad
-Isfahan
-Algiers
-F...
"Se diría que esta plaza es una pequeña ciudad, con
murallas dotadas de doce puertas, cada una de las
cuales está atravesa...
The commercial institution & the architectonic typology
Kayseriye (Bezestan); Mardin, Turkey
Alcaicerías in Al-Andalus and Christian Spain: the architectural typology
A cluster of shops joined up with other administrative facilities located in the centre of the
main Moorish Iberian cities...
An enclosed merchandising area with limited opening hours
Alcaicería de la seda, Sevilla. Plano de Sevilla, Pablo Olavide[...
Following different layouts: a street, a patio with arcades or a complex with narrow streets
Alcaicería, Sevilla. Hypothet...
Alcaicería, Sevilla. Hypothesis drawn on aerial view, Sergio Palma [Sevilla en estampas, 2010]
Clearly delimitated with mo...
Alcaicerías leaped to the “New World” as commercial spaces
México
Philippines
Alcaicería of México City
Plan, Sebastian Zamorano [1617]
Alcaicería of San Fernando, Manila, Philippines
Design, Tomás Sanz *1756+, opened in 1726, demolished in 1850’s
“Remaining in the cities of Toledo and Granada”. Diccionario de Autoridades, 1726
The decline of the silk trade led the di...
Real Academia Española (RAE) Dictionary, 2013 [on-line version]
The modern definitions refer to Granada
A chronicle of the Alcaicería of Granada
Chronological line: a space with over 6 centuries with commercial use
Alcaicería
Written documents
Plans of Granada
Evolution: 16th Century - Today
Plans by José Luis Garzón Cardenete (Real sitio y fuerte de La Alcaicería de Granada, 2004...
Archeological remains. There are no Arab descriptions of Granada’s Alcaicería.
"Transaction Document" 1460 (Repositorio In...
The first historiography (1890): Alcaicería of Granada in the time of the Moors
Indalecio Ventura Sabatel, Boletín del Cen...
Detail: the Alcaicería of Granada in the time of the Moors
Indalecio Ventura Sabatel, Boletín del Centro Artístico de Gran...
“walking along calle Zacatín, before reaching the
square [Bib-rambla], to the right, through a small gate
one enters a pla...
The Alcaicería of Granada in 1612: enclosed perimeter and interior layout
Plataforma de Vico (1612), detail. Photo courtes...
The Alcaicería of Granada in 1796
Plano de Dalmau (1796), detail. Photo courtesy of BER
The Alcaicería of Granada in 1787
Colored photocopy by uses of the Plano Tomás López 1897 Archivo Municipal de Granada (or...
After 1843. A regular layout with ornamentations in a prominent Alhambresque style
The Alhambresque reconstruction. Contre...
Modular units to be applied to each shop
The Alhambresque reconstruction Archs: Contreras, Amador, Pugnaire, Romero. Eleva...
An ideal Alcaicería
The Alhambresque recosntruction. Archs: Amador, Pugnaire, Romero. Detail. Archivo Municipal de Granada...
The operation did not have real commercial success
Photos after the reconstruction. Archive CS
Postcards from the Alcaicería. Left: 1905; right: circa 1970's
A new decision: theme market for handcrafts, 1941
The Alcaicería was revamped and set to be used for a new purpose: tourism
A piece of news: IDEAL 28th, January 1941 (Newsp...
1941-1980s / Local arts and crafts tradition has been displaced by new souvenir products
Collection of postcards , after 1...
1980-2012 / The heritage protection
Card “UA U-9-Alcaicería” Plan Especial Centro, July 2002
2007-2012 / Plan Especial Recinto Alcaicería
General plan, Arch: Carlos Sánchez
2007-2012 / Plan Especial Recinto Alcaicería: before and after
Photos: Bottom, before [photos from arch: Carlos Sánchez] /...
The complex is not listed as a heritage asset, should it be included?
Print screen: http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/cultura...
The Alcaicería today: a post-touristic shopping scape
Alcaicería
Alcaicería
Alcaicería & main touristic spots
Cathedral
Alhambra
Bib-rambla
Alcaicería
San Nicolás
Alcaicería today: limit and gates, enviroment
La Alcaicería, Granada, Spain. 2013
The mimetic, recently restored, atmosphere is a commercial scenario that mixes reality...
Print screen, Google: Alcaicería
If we were tourists, we could anticipate our visit
Print screen, Flickr: Alcaicería
“the anticipation is constructed and sustained through a variety of non tourist practices...
Route The Alhambra: Territoy, space and city. Interactive map. Print screen: www.alhambra-patronato.es (click here)
“The i...
Youtube: vídeo uploaded by a tourist (2009). Print screen: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5DlOYDF4x0c
“post-tourists deli...
Collection of recent photos (after 2008) / virtual itinerary. Print screens, photos from flickr: alcaicería
“(Malls) are c...
Alcaicerías del milenio. Poster of the event in Almería, 2011. Photos from Internet, Almería and Jaen (2011)
“Everything i...
?
I fantasize that somewhere in the world there is a modern shopping mall called
Alcaicería that could serve to complete t...
In the mean time, you can also shop at www.alcaiceria.com
Products, categories: oriental bazaar; embroidery ; fajalauza / ...
The remains of silk
Photo: JASM (Shop window, calle libreros, Granada, 10/01/2103)
Follow us:
Twitter: @kauharquitectos
Facebook: Kauh-arquitectos
Blog: http://kauharquitectos.blogspot.com.es
OBRIGADO / TH...
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The Alcaicería of Granada (Spain) From a silk trade center to a post-touristic shopping-scape

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Slide presentation used for the communication 'The Alcaicería of Granada (Spain) From a silk trade center to a post-touristic shopping-scape', presented in Lisbon (May 2013) during the International Conference ShoppingScapes´13, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias. This communication shows some preliminary notes about the evolution of the Alcaicería of Granada, Spain, a case study of one of the precursors of themed modern shopping centers and malls.
Abstract: The Alcaicería of Granada is a contemporary post-touristic shopping-scape with deeps roots in history. In the Medieval Arab world, the term al-qaysāriyya described a commercial institution for the silk trade as well as an architectonic typology. In Al-Andalus, the typology was a cluster of shops located in the center of the main cities. After the Reconquest, these structures were maintained and alcaicerías were even built, as commercial spaces, in America and the Philippines. The decline of the silk trade provoked their disappearance, with the exception of Granada's. The chronicle of the Alcaicería of Granada begins with a "transaction document" (1460), continues with its reconstruction in Alhambresque style (1843) and its conversion into a theme market for handcrafts (1940), to its recent restoration (2002). Today, the mimetic atmosphere full of souvenirs, among just a few local crafts, is a commercial urban scenario that mixes reality and fiction for tourists.
Keywords: Alcaicería. Granada. Shopping Structures. Post-tourism. Silk Trade

Published in: Education, Travel
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The Alcaicería of Granada (Spain) From a silk trade center to a post-touristic shopping-scape

  1. 1. ShoppingScapes´13, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias Lisboa, May 2013 The Alcaicería of Granada (Spain) From a silk trade center to a post-touristic shopping-scape Juan Antonio Sánchez Muñoz Architect, independent researcher / kauharquitectos@gmail.com Editor (English text) & translation of quotes: Vincent Morales Garoffolo
  2. 2. “We have been everywhere. We have seen nothing” Humbet Humbert in Lolita (Nabokov, 1955) - Introduction: A postcard from Granada - What is an Alcaicería? The origin - Alcaicerías in Al-Andalus and Christian Spain: the architectural typology - A chronicle of The Alcaicería of Granada - The Alcaicería today: a post-touristic shopping scape
  3. 3. Alcaicería. Video by David Snakeskin, 20012 / courtesy of the artist http://vimeo.com/46514906
  4. 4. La Alcaicería, Granada, Spain. 2013
  5. 5. Introduction: a postcard from Granada
  6. 6. Granada Lisbon Granada, Spain
  7. 7. Granada 272,730 inhabitants (2011) Granada: midsized city
  8. 8. Albaicín Alhambra Centro Touristic areas in Granada
  9. 9. Alhambra Cathedral Most visited monuments: Alhambra & Cathedral [Source: Observatorio Turístico de Granada, 2010]
  10. 10. Alhambra: 2.200,000 visitors (2012) Alhambra, hotspot [Source: Patronato Alhambra, 2012]
  11. 11. Most visited monuments in Spain: Alhambra, Prado, Sagrada Familia Granada Madrid Barcelona
  12. 12. Medieval Arabs geographers and travellers - Abd al-Malik ben Habib (853) -Ahmad ben Muhammad ben Musa al Razi (885-955) -Abd Allah (c. 1056) - Abu Ubayd al-Bakri (1094) - Abu Wahid Muhammad al- Saqundi (1231) -Ibn Idhari (s. XIII-XIV) - Al-Nuwayri (1278-1332) - Lizan al-Din ben al-Jatib (1313- 1374) - Abd al-Rahman ben Jaldun (1332-1404) -Ahmad ben Muhammad al- Maqqaru (1631) … Christian travellers 15th Century -Jerónimo Münzer -Señor de Montigny -Antonio de Lalaing -Jorge de Ehingen -Andrea Navagiero -Sobieski -Diego de Cuelbis -Villuga … 16th and 17th Centuries -France: Señor de Moroonys, Bertaut and Martin -England: William Lithgow, Willoughby, Howell and Ellin Veryard -Germany: the Elector Palatine Frederick II, Welsch -Flanders: Anton Van den Wyngaerde, Joris Hoefnagel … 18th Century -Spain: Perez Bayer, Ponz and Conde de Maule -Germany: Adam Ebert (Aulus Apronius), Wolfgang Bayer and Carl Cristopher Plüer -England: Cristopher Hervey, Richard Twis, Henry Swinburne, Joseph Townsend and John Talbot Dillon -France: Etienne Silhouette, Jean Francois Peyron and Nicolas Massias … 19th Century: the peak point of this curiosity, as Granada became a center of a pilgrimage for writers and painters: George Borrow, Washington Irving, Gautier, Chateaubriand, David Roberts, Dumas, Giraud, Desbarrelees,... Granada and tourism – early travellers Cuentos de La Alhambra / Tales of the Alhambra. W. Irving, 1852
  13. 13. Time Lapse Alhambra Sunset, 2012. Video by David Snakeskin, 20012 / courtesy of the artist http://vimeo.com/46514905 The myth of Granada (Calatrava, 2002)
  14. 14. El cuento de la Alhambra, 2006. Valeriano López / Courtesy of the artist The romantic and the collective tourist gaze
  15. 15. The ‘silk trade’ adds extra, more fanciful connotations to the Alcaicería Roman fresco / ‘Silk route’ map (Wikipedia) / Chinese engraving
  16. 16. What is an Alcaicería? The origin
  17. 17. ḲAYSĀRIYYA: the name of a large system of public buildings laid out in the form of cloisters with shops, workshops, warehouses and frequently also living-rooms" (Streck, 1913-1936) Encyclopedia of Islam
  18. 18. Places derive from kaysariyya -Cairo -Beirut -Damascus - Aleppo - Mosul -Al-Salamiyya -Irbil -Baghdad -Isfahan -Algiers -Fez -Spain The word was used for similar commercial structures The Medieval Arab World. From 750 to 1700. Maps from Kantara Project – Mediterranean Heritage
  19. 19. "Se diría que esta plaza es una pequeña ciudad, con murallas dotadas de doce puertas, cada una de las cuales está atravesada que no permite la entrada de caballos ni de otras caballerías. (...) Se divide el recinto de la plaza en quince partes. (...) Dos están destinadas a los traficantes de las sedas, con lado para los vendedores de flecos, cordones y otros adornos (...), y otro cuartel para los de las sedas teñidas para camisas, fundas de almohada y otras prendas. (...) Continúan en la plaza otros dos sectores donde se vende la pañería de lana llegada de Europa, siendo granadinos todos estos mercaderes. También se despachan allí géneros de seda, cofias caseras y sedas crudas. (...)” Leo Africanus (c.1500) – Alcaicería of Fez The Alcaicería was devoted to textiles and specifically to silk, manufactured or raw Descripción general del África, y de las cosas peregrinas que allí hay. Juan León Africano; c.1500
  20. 20. The commercial institution & the architectonic typology Kayseriye (Bezestan); Mardin, Turkey
  21. 21. Alcaicerías in Al-Andalus and Christian Spain: the architectural typology
  22. 22. A cluster of shops joined up with other administrative facilities located in the centre of the main Moorish Iberian cities (Balbas, 1949) Granada Toledo Valencia Palma Córdoba Seville Málaga Velez-Málaga
  23. 23. An enclosed merchandising area with limited opening hours Alcaicería de la seda, Sevilla. Plano de Sevilla, Pablo Olavide[1711]
  24. 24. Following different layouts: a street, a patio with arcades or a complex with narrow streets Alcaicería, Sevilla. Hypothetical reconstruction, Juan Carlos Hernández Nuñez [Laboratorio de Arte, 7; 1994]
  25. 25. Alcaicería, Sevilla. Hypothesis drawn on aerial view, Sergio Palma [Sevilla en estampas, 2010] Clearly delimitated with monitored gates with a strict control of their use
  26. 26. Alcaicerías leaped to the “New World” as commercial spaces México Philippines
  27. 27. Alcaicería of México City Plan, Sebastian Zamorano [1617]
  28. 28. Alcaicería of San Fernando, Manila, Philippines Design, Tomás Sanz *1756+, opened in 1726, demolished in 1850’s
  29. 29. “Remaining in the cities of Toledo and Granada”. Diccionario de Autoridades, 1726 The decline of the silk trade led the disappearance of the alcaicerías in Spain
  30. 30. Real Academia Española (RAE) Dictionary, 2013 [on-line version] The modern definitions refer to Granada
  31. 31. A chronicle of the Alcaicería of Granada
  32. 32. Chronological line: a space with over 6 centuries with commercial use Alcaicería Written documents Plans of Granada
  33. 33. Evolution: 16th Century - Today Plans by José Luis Garzón Cardenete (Real sitio y fuerte de La Alcaicería de Granada, 2004) 16th 17th 18th-1843 after 1843 today
  34. 34. Archeological remains. There are no Arab descriptions of Granada’s Alcaicería. "Transaction Document" 1460 (Repositorio Institucional Univ. de Granada) & shaft and capital, 1333-1354 (Museo de la Alhambra)
  35. 35. The first historiography (1890): Alcaicería of Granada in the time of the Moors Indalecio Ventura Sabatel, Boletín del Centro Artístico de Granada, V, año 1890. Courtesy of Carlos Sánchez
  36. 36. Detail: the Alcaicería of Granada in the time of the Moors Indalecio Ventura Sabatel, Boletín del Centro Artístico de Granada, V, año 1890. Detail.
  37. 37. “walking along calle Zacatín, before reaching the square [Bib-rambla], to the right, through a small gate one enters a place called Alcaicería, which is an enclosed quarter between two gates with many narrow alleys; there are shops everywhere run by moriscos [muslims who converted to Christianity] and an infinite amount of goods in multiple shapes and varied nature. It is similar to our haberdasheries or our Rialto [in Venice]. Because, truth be told, there is an endless amount of things there, especially a large quantity of needlework” (Navagiero, Andrea 1526) There are many descriptions of travelers from the Christian era (after 1492) Description of Antonio Navagiero, 1526
  38. 38. The Alcaicería of Granada in 1612: enclosed perimeter and interior layout Plataforma de Vico (1612), detail. Photo courtesy of Blanca Espigares Rooney
  39. 39. The Alcaicería of Granada in 1796 Plano de Dalmau (1796), detail. Photo courtesy of BER
  40. 40. The Alcaicería of Granada in 1787 Colored photocopy by uses of the Plano Tomás López 1897 Archivo Municipal de Granada (original plan in Archivo General de Simancas). Photo courtesy of CSG Key: Green: shops Red: silk shops Blue: bookshops Soft pink: The Silk Custom House / House of the administrator Yellow: shrine Brown: room for guard dogs Orange: guard’s quarter White: shop & house of the Alcaide Dark pink: private houses
  41. 41. After 1843. A regular layout with ornamentations in a prominent Alhambresque style The Alhambresque reconstruction. Contreras, Amador, Pugnaire, Romero. Plan. Archivo Municipal de Granada, photo courtesy of CSG
  42. 42. Modular units to be applied to each shop The Alhambresque reconstruction Archs: Contreras, Amador, Pugnaire, Romero. Elevation Arch. Municipal de Granada, photo courtesy of CSG
  43. 43. An ideal Alcaicería The Alhambresque recosntruction. Archs: Amador, Pugnaire, Romero. Detail. Archivo Municipal de Granada, photo courtesy of CSG
  44. 44. The operation did not have real commercial success Photos after the reconstruction. Archive CS
  45. 45. Postcards from the Alcaicería. Left: 1905; right: circa 1970's A new decision: theme market for handcrafts, 1941
  46. 46. The Alcaicería was revamped and set to be used for a new purpose: tourism A piece of news: IDEAL 28th, January 1941 (Newspaper Library IDEAL)
  47. 47. 1941-1980s / Local arts and crafts tradition has been displaced by new souvenir products Collection of postcards , after 1941 (Todocoleccion.net)
  48. 48. 1980-2012 / The heritage protection Card “UA U-9-Alcaicería” Plan Especial Centro, July 2002
  49. 49. 2007-2012 / Plan Especial Recinto Alcaicería General plan, Arch: Carlos Sánchez
  50. 50. 2007-2012 / Plan Especial Recinto Alcaicería: before and after Photos: Bottom, before [photos from arch: Carlos Sánchez] / Top, after: [photos from Flickr/Alcaicería] After the restoration Before the restoration
  51. 51. The complex is not listed as a heritage asset, should it be included? Print screen: http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/culturaydeporte/web/areas/bbcc/catalogo [24th May 2013]
  52. 52. The Alcaicería today: a post-touristic shopping scape
  53. 53. Alcaicería Alcaicería
  54. 54. Alcaicería & main touristic spots Cathedral Alhambra Bib-rambla Alcaicería San Nicolás
  55. 55. Alcaicería today: limit and gates, enviroment
  56. 56. La Alcaicería, Granada, Spain. 2013 The mimetic, recently restored, atmosphere is a commercial scenario that mixes reality and fiction
  57. 57. Print screen, Google: Alcaicería If we were tourists, we could anticipate our visit
  58. 58. Print screen, Flickr: Alcaicería “the anticipation is constructed and sustained through a variety of non tourist practices” Urry, 1990
  59. 59. Route The Alhambra: Territoy, space and city. Interactive map. Print screen: www.alhambra-patronato.es (click here) “The idea of post-tourist suggests that tourism might be viewed as a game” Urry, 1990
  60. 60. Youtube: vídeo uploaded by a tourist (2009). Print screen: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5DlOYDF4x0c “post-tourists delight in the inauthenticity of the normal tourist experience” Urry, 1990 “Look! Look! Arab heritage… This is exactly like a souk un Tunis… just that here I am not afraid… everything must come from there… Look! Look at this apron with flamenco frills” From the video
  61. 61. Collection of recent photos (after 2008) / virtual itinerary. Print screens, photos from flickr: alcaicería “(Malls) are conspicuous for cleanliness, and newness” Urry, 1990
  62. 62. Alcaicerías del milenio. Poster of the event in Almería, 2011. Photos from Internet, Almería and Jaen (2011) “Everything is a copy, where what is fake can often seem more real than the real” Urry, 1990
  63. 63. ? I fantasize that somewhere in the world there is a modern shopping mall called Alcaicería that could serve to complete the chronicle, a space that would be a copy (of Granada's recently restored 19th century Alcaicería) of the copy (of Granada's Medieval Silk Market) of another copy (of the ancient Byzantine imperial market places), "each of which seems more real than the original" (Urry, 1990) but always ready for commerce and shopping to take place.
  64. 64. In the mean time, you can also shop at www.alcaiceria.com Products, categories: oriental bazaar; embroidery ; fajalauza / painted ceramics ; gifts and souvenirs; taracea / wood with incrustations)
  65. 65. The remains of silk Photo: JASM (Shop window, calle libreros, Granada, 10/01/2103)
  66. 66. Follow us: Twitter: @kauharquitectos Facebook: Kauh-arquitectos Blog: http://kauharquitectos.blogspot.com.es OBRIGADO / THANKS / GRACIAS,

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