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Katy Pearce #ttw12

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Katy Pearce #ttw12

  1. 1. Is your Web everyones Web?Theorizing the web through the lens of the device divide Dr. Katy Pearce, Georgetown University @katypearce With Janine Slaker and Nida Ahmad
  2. 2. DEVICE DIVIDE 2
  3. 3. Devices• First, a poll• Device impacts our activities (Chigona, Beukes, Vally, & Tanner,2009; Donner & Bezuidenhoudt, 2012; Donner & Gitau, 2009; Donner et al.,2011; Kreutzer, 2009; Pearce et al., 2012; Pearce & Rice, 2012)• But the device you use is not random• What about those for whom there is no devicechoice? 3
  4. 4. Demographics and Devices• Access to the Internet (and type of access) and Internet activities are demographically determined.• But what matters for Internet activity choices – demographics or access type or both?• Outline1. Demographic differences in device type2. Activities by device type3. Personas4. Combined interaction of demographics and device4
  5. 5. Media Landscape Project• USAID-funded• “Aims to enhance and improve access to pluralistic and unbiased information in Armenia through the use of new information technologies, as well as to increase alternative sources of news, build civic demand for alternative content, and enhance public advocacy on media freedom.”• January-February 2011• N = 1420, nationally representative 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. DEVICES 7
  8. 8. Devices• Personal computer – Dial-up (17% of users) – DSL (28% of users) – 3G cellular flash card (40% of users) – Tethered mobile phone (30% of users)• Mobile phone (16% of users) 8
  9. 9. Total CapitalRegional city Rural 9
  10. 10. ARE THERE DEMOGRAPHICDIFFERENCES IN DEVICE USERS? 10
  11. 11. Demographics 3.11• Economic wellbeing (1-5) 2.31 2.69 1.97 Non-Users Mobile-Only PC-Only Both• Education (1-7) 4.91 3.61 3.82 3.61 Non-Users Mobile-Only PC-Only Both 11
  12. 12. • English (1-4) 3.38 3.45 2.8 2.36 Non-Users Mobile-Only PC-Only Both• Age (16-99) 50.07 36.34 26.21 26.65 Non-Users Mobile-Only PC-Only Both• Urbanness (1-3) 2.12 1.94 1.6 1.38 Non-Users Mobile-Only PC-Only Both 12
  13. 13. WHAT DETERMINES DEVICECHOICE? 13
  14. 14. Device Choice• Mobile-only • Age • Urbanness (slightly) – Digital inequality implications• PC-only • English • Urbanness • Education • Gender • Economic wellbeing • Age• Both • Urbanness • Economic wellbeing • Education • English • Age 14
  15. 15. DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES BY DEVICE 15
  16. 16. Activities X Device – Armenia 201185 80 55 53 47 43 40 39 36 34 32 32 30 29 30 26 27 23 21 22 19 17 16 15 8 9 9 5 5 6 SNS Search Online Video IM Email Games Music Work Blog engines news 16 Mobile % PC % Both %
  17. 17. PERSONAS 17
  18. 18. Village user Arsen HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AGE EMPLOYMENT 34 None Parents Wife EDUCATION INTERNET ACCESS 2 small children Secondary school Mobile only Sister-in-law (brother is labor migrant) INCOME ONLINE SINCE Nephews Irregular 2010 INTERNET ACTIVITIES Social networking sites Television content Soft porn 18
  19. 19. Regional city users Vahe and Narine HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AGE EMPLOYMENT 33 & 28 Vahe - labor Vahe’s mother migrant; Narine - 2 small children EDUCATION housewife Secondary school & university INTERNET ACCESS Mobile only INCOME Food & clothes ONLINE SINCE comfortable 2009 INTERNET ACTIVITIES Maintaining contact Social networking sites Games 19
  20. 20. Capitol city user Karen HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AGE EMPLOYMENT 24 Assistant Parents accountant EDUCATION University INTERNET ACCESS PC only INCOME Food & clothes ONLINE SINCE comfortable 2010 INTERNET ACTIVITIES Social networking sites Dating Entertainment – videos/music 20
  21. 21. Capitol city user Anush HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION AGE Program manager 28 Parents INTERNET ACCESS EDUCATION PC and mobile Postgrad ONLINE SINCE INCOME 2005 Food, clothes, appli ance comfortable EMPLOYMENT INTERNET ACTIVITIES Civic engagement News Blogging Social networking sites 21
  22. 22. THE ACTIVITY GAP:DEMOGRAPHICS AND DEVICES 22
  23. 23. Social networking sites Videos Games Device Age X PC Education X mobile English Device Age English Urbanness PC-only Age Urbanness X PC Search engines Instant messaging Downloading music English English Device Urbanness X PC Age Age X PC Age X PC English Education x mobile English X PC Urbanness Education X both PC-only PC-only Online news Email Work Device English X both Device Education X PC English PC-only English Education X PC English PC-only Education X PC Age X PC 23
  24. 24. Implications• Although mobile Internet is available to a wider demographic population of Armenians, the Internet activity device gap remains. – Access is not enough. • Highway versus bike lane.• Although… – Assumptions of what Internet activities should be and what “The Web” is. – Upskilling possible (Pearce, 2011). 24
  25. 25. Contributions• Few venues have large mobile-only Internet population. – What we can learn from such a venue has implications for digital inequality everywhere. • Access is not enough.• Demographic and device-driven differences in online activities matter for any context. 25
  26. 26. THANK YOU 26

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