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  1. 1. THE REPRODUCTION AND AMPLIFICATION OF GENDER INEQUALITY ONLINE: THE CASE OF AZERBAIJAN ---------Dr. Katy Pearce University of Washington 1 @katypearce
  2. 2. NOT NEW Matthew effect is where the rich get richer and the poor get poorer Knowledge Gap Hypothesis where those with the most resources adopt first, have and gain more skills, and use technology more effectively – thus benefiting earlier and more and increasing a gap Digital Divide gap between haves & haves nots 2
  3. 3. Positional categories Participation in society Access Resources Personal categories Usage access Skills access Material access Motivation al access Technological properties of ICT ---------------------------------------------------Influences on Digital Divide Van Dijk’s (2005) model 3
  4. 4. AGE Younger people have the highest adoption rate and levels of use of the Internet due to earlier exposure, training, peer use, and greater comfort EDUCATION Educational attainment is positively related to Internet adoption and use because of greater awareness, training, apacibilities, and ability to evaluate content ------ Personal categories ECONOMIC WELLBEING Because of the greater ability to afford the related costs, economic wellbeing is related to Internet adoption and use URBANNESS Because of telecommunications infrastructure, pace of life, educational opportunities, and motivation, rural residents are less likely to adopt and use the Internet Influences on Digital Divide socioeconomic & demographics 4
  5. 5. ------------------- Most studies show that men use the Internet more than women do because of more prior exposure to technology as well as work-related needs Women tend to use the Internet for communication and social reasons ---------------------------------------------------But sex differences have mostly disappeared in higher income countries ---------------------------------------------------Employment Some argue ICTs can empower women, but barriers remain Education Financial resources Cultural Influences on Digital Divide the greatest divide? 5
  6. 6. Post-Soviet Secular Muslim Authoritarian High literacy Oil wealth Context Azerbaijan 6
  7. 7. • Azerbaijani women have household responsibilities • Azerbaijani women are less likely to work outside the home and thus less exposed to technology • However, it is possible that the Internet is another public space where behavior must be in check and controlled ---------------------------------------------------• The Azerbaijani media does not frame social media in a positive light • “Family tragedies,” “criminal incidents,” “mental disorders,” “sex trafficking of women and children,” “causes divorce” Gender and the Internet another public space? 7
  8. 8. • Azerbaijani women perform a second shift • Honor culture • Value personal and family honor and reputation • Specific behavioral codes of obedience • Must retaliate against honor violations ---------------------------------------------------• Women play a special role in honor culture • While men are tough and have to reaffirm their status, women are modest, have a norm of shame, and avoid embarrassing situations and behaviors • Sexual honor, “namus,” is very important to socialize into daughters • This restricts women’s mobility and access to public spaces • Honor is maintained through kinship Gender in Azerbaijan political and cultural 8
  9. 9. RQS RQ1: What is the relative importance of sociodemographic characteristics on Internet use frequency levels? RQ2: What is the relative importance of sociodemographic characteristics on capital enhancing Internet activities of social networking site use and online news reading? Research Questions 9
  10. 10. RESPONDENTS & SAMPLING N=1829 Caucasus Research Resource Center Nationally representative, annual repeated questions Method 10
  11. 11. RQ1: WHAT IS THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON INTERNET USE FREQUENCY LEVELS? All differences significant in a univariate ANOVA Azerbaijan Internet Frequency X Gender (%) (CB, 2012) 58% 14% 8% Every day 17% 12% 4% At least once a week 4% 6% 2% At least once a month male Results 65% 6% 4% Less often Never I don’t know what the Internet is female 11
  12. 12. RQ1: WHAT IS THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON INTERNET USE FREQUENCY LEVELS? Linear regression Adjusted R2 = .30 Results 12
  13. 13. RQ1: WHAT IS THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON INTERNET USE FREQUENCY LEVELS? Multinominal logistic regression X2 = 2632478.311 (20) *** Nagel. R2 = .41 Gender Age Education Economic wellbeing Urban Intercept Results Infrequent .88 (.01)*** Wald 43883.90 C.I. 2.39 -.05 (.00)*** Wald 107793.523 C.I. .95 .50 (.00)*** Wald 88995.53 C.I. 1.65 .27 (.00)*** Wald 15132.49 C.I. 1.31 .21 (.00)*** Wald 15911.79 C.I. 1.23 Monthly .90 (.01)*** Wald 29865.91 C.I. 2.46 -.07 (.00)*** Wald 108069.35 C.I. .93 .53 (.00)*** Wald 64887.21 C.I. 1.70 .77 (.00)*** Wald 82937.62 C.I. 2.16 .05 (.00)*** Wald 421.64 C.I. 1.04 Weekly 1.62 (.00)*** Wald 4187972.67 C.I. 5.07 -.08 (.00)*** Wald 307072.37 C.I. .92 .78 (.00)*** Wald 315705.30 C.I. 2.17 .54 (.00)*** Wald 87043.04 C.I. 1.71 .36 (.00)*** Wald 63815.32 C.I. 1.44 Daily 1.27 (.00)*** Wald 141652.18 C.I. 3.56 -.11 (.00)*** Wald 465250.96 C.I .90 .93 (.00)*** Wald 498574.30 C.I. 2.54 .43 (.00)*** Wald 60840.93 C.I. 1.54 .47 (.00)*** Wald 110010.69 C.I. 1.60 -4.461 (.01)*** Wald 205375.91 -5.65 (.01)*** Wald 201155.63-- -5.86 (.01)*** Wald 455012.79 -5.39 (.01)*** Wald 426210.55 13
  14. 14. RQ2: WHAT IS THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL ENHANCING INTERNET ACTIVITIES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITE USE AND ONLINE NEWS READING? Azerbaijan SNS use X gender (%) (CB, 2012) 60% Azerbaijan Online news user X gender (%) (CB, 2012) 60% 54% 50% 50% 43% 40% 40% 35% 30% 30% 20% 15% 10% 20% 17% 14% 10% 0% 5% 2% 0% male users female users Results male total female total male users female users male total female total 14
  15. 15. RQ2: WHAT IS THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL ENHANCING INTERNET ACTIVITIES OF SOCIAL NETWORKING SITE USE AND ONLINE NEWS READING? Binomial logistic regression SNS Gender Age Education Economic wellbeing Urban Internet Frequency Constant Results News .42 (.00)*** Wald 13144.27 C.I. 1.52 -.06 (.00)*** Wald 115825.35 C.I .94 .02 (.00)*** Wald 302.58 C.I. 1.02 -.10 (.00)*** Wald 2838.82 C.I. .91 -.14 (.00)*** Wald 7705.26 C.I. .87 .33 (.00)*** Wald 37204.90 C.I. 1.39 .12 (.01)*** Wald 638.18 C.I. 1.13 .03 (.00)*** Wald 32868.65 C.I 1.03 .26 (.00)*** Wald 22712.74 C.I. 1.29 -.08 (.00)*** Wald 1033.58 C.I. .93 -.09 (.00)*** Wald 1807.22 C.I. .92 .05 (.00)*** Wald 520.63 C.I. 1.05 1.05 (.01)*** Wald 11814.95 C.I. 2.85 Nagelkerke R2 = .18 -.397 (.01)*** Wald 90567.44 Nagelkerke R2 = .07 15
  16. 16. WHAT HAPPENED? Gender was the most important predictor for Internet frequency, SNS use, and second most important for online news. But is the Internet just another resource that they do have equal access to or is it a place where honor can be violated? • Cyberbulling and trolling • Teenage suicides Maybe the Internet isn’t such a great place to be? Discussion 16
  17. 17. THANK YOU ! FOR YOUR ATTENTION 17

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