Alternative response


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Alternative response

  1. 1. Objective Examination<br />Alternative Response<br />
  2. 2. Alternative Response<br />This test consists of series of items where it admits only one correct response in each item from the two or three consonant options to be chosen. This type is commonly used in classroom testing, particularly, the two-consonant alternative type or true-false type. Other forms are right-wrong, plus-minus, yes-no, correct-incorrect, same-different, etc.<br />
  3. 3. Alternative Response<br />Single True-False<br />Multiple True-False<br />Multiple Correct Response<br />
  4. 4. Writing True or False Questions<br />True-false questions require the students to select a response (true or false) that shows recognition of correct or incorrect information that is presented to them. <br />Another term applied to these items is "forced choice" because the student must choose between two possible answers. <br />
  5. 5. Writing True or False Questions<br />True-false questions are well suited for testing student recall or comprehension. Students can generally respond to many questions, covering a lot of content, in a fairly short amount of time. <br />In the most basic format, true-false questions are those in which a statement is presented and the student indicates in some manner whether the statement is true or false. <br />
  6. 6. Writing True or False Questions<br />Scores on true-false items tend to be high because of the ease of guessing correct answers when the answer is not known. With only two choices (true or false) the student could expect to guess correctly on half of the items for which correct answers are not known. <br />
  7. 7. Writing True or False Questions<br />Because these items are in the form of statements, there is sometimes a tendency to take quotations from the text, expecting the student to recognize a correct quotation or note a change (sometimes minor) in wording. There may also be a tendency to include trivial or inconsequential material from the text. Both of these practices are discouraged.<br />
  8. 8. Writing True or False Questions<br />A good use of true-false questions is for the student to demonstrate understanding or simple logic. These questions can also be used effectively in stating cause and effect relationships (Example below), established by the use of "because" in the statement. <br />1. Year-round schooling is implemented because students like the air-conditioned schools in the summer.<br />
  9. 9. Writing True or False Questions<br />Unless an item is intended to show cause and effect, it should contain only one idea (Example 2). If more than one idea is contained (Example 3), one part of the statement may be true while the other part is false, leaving the student confused as to how to answer.<br />2. The University is centrally located in the city.<br />3.The University is centrally located in the city with sufficient student parking.<br />
  10. 10. Writing True or False Questions<br />If the statement is an opinion, rather than a fact, it should be attributed to someone, as in Example 4. A good indicator that a statement is an opinion is the use of "should" or similar language in the statement.<br />4. According to the President, teachers in rural areas should be first to receive salary increases.<br />
  11. 11. Writing True or False Questions<br />One suggested method for developing true-false items is to write a set of true statements that cover the content, then convert approximately half of them to false statements. When changing items to false (as well as in writing the true statements initially), it is best to keep items stated positively, avoiding negatives or double negatives. If negatives (such as the word "not") are used, there should be some way of calling attention to them: putting them in italics, bold type, or capital letters, or underlining them. Example 5a starts with a positive statement, then shows possible changes to address the content while making it a false statement. While 5c is an improvement over 5b, 5d is the preferred one.<br />
  12. 12. Writing True or False Questions<br />5a. Writing objectives precedes development of curriculum. (original true statement)<br />5b. Writing objectives does not precede development of curriculum. (unwieldy false statement containing "not")<br />5c. Writing objectives does NOT precede development of curriculum. (improved false statement)<br />5d. Development of curriculum precedes writing objectives. (preferred false statement)<br />
  13. 13. General Guidelines for Writing True-false Questions<br />Statements should be relatively short and simple.<br />True statements should be about the same length as false statements. (There is a tendency to add details in true statements to make them more precise.)<br />The answers should not be obvious to students who don't know the material.<br />
  14. 14. General Guidelines for Writing True-false Questions<br />Sweeping broad general statements or absolutes (all, always, never, none, only), such as Example 6, tend to be false, since the student need think of only a single incident in which it is untrue to mark it false.<br />6. Students who make as always have above average IQ scores.<br />
  15. 15. General Guidelines for Writing True-false Questions<br />A similar situation occurs with the use of "can" in a true-false statement. If the student knows of a single case in which something could be done, it would be true.<br />Ambiguous or vague statements and terms, such as "large," "long time," "regularly," "some," and "usually" are best avoided in the interest of clarity. Some terms have more than one meaning and may be interpreted differently by individuals as in Example 7.<br />7. A nickel is larger than a dime. (True if we are talking about diameter, false if we are talking about the monetary value.)<br />
  16. 16. General Guidelines for Writing True-false Questions<br />While one author recommends having about the same number of true and false statements, another suggests having a larger number of false statements. A good guideline is to vary the ratio of true/false statements from test to test or quiz to quiz so that students do not depend on previous tests for cues as to the balance of true and false questions.<br /> If students are to write in a "T" or "F" to indicate answers, their handwriting can cause errors in marking. This can be avoided by having them circle or underline their answers ("T" or "F," "true" or "false"), which would be typed beside each question.<br />
  17. 17. General Guidelines for Writing True-false Questions<br />Determine that the questions are appropriately answered by "True" or "False" rather than by some other type of response, such as "Yes" or "No."<br />Finally, arrange the statements so that there is no discernible pattern of answers (such as T, F, T, F, T, F and T, T, F, F, T, T, F, F) for True and False statements.<br />Be sure to include directions that tell students how and where to mark their responses.<br />
  18. 18. Single True-False<br />Directions: Circle T if the given statement is true and F if the statement is false.<br />T F 1. Statement.<br />T F 2. Statement.<br />
  19. 19. Single True-False Example in Science(Secondary)<br />Directions: Circle T if the given statement is true and F if the statement is false.<br />T F 1. Cell is the basic unit of life.<br />T F 2. Nucleoplasm is the region of the protoplasm outside the nucleus and where nutrients are absorbed, transported, and processed.<br />T F 3. In a typical cell, the production of energy in the form of ATP takes place in the mitochondria.<br />T F 4. Lysosomes are vesicles that formed by the vacuoles.<br />T F 5. Mitochondria and Chloroplast are energy converting organelles.<br />
  20. 20. T F 6. The green pigment material is called chlorophyll.<br />T F 7. Peroxisomes are also known as the the digester of molecules<br />T F 8. Vacuoles are storer of molecules . <br />T F 9. The shape of the cell is commonly related to its function.<br />T F 10. Prokaryotic cells have a true nucleus. <br />Single True-False Example in Science(Secondary)<br />
  21. 21. Directions: Circle T if the given statement is true and F if the statement is false.<br />T F 1. There are four quadrants in the Cartesian plane.<br />T F 2. In the first quadrant, the value of x is positive and the value of y is negative. <br />T F 3. Pythagoras was the one who discovered the Cartesian plane. <br />T F 4. The values of x and y in the third quadrant are both negative. <br />T F 5. The arrows of x and y axes mean ‘ infinite’.<br />Single True-False Example in Math(Secondary)<br />
  22. 22. Multiple True-False<br />Directions: Following each statement are a number of options or alternatives. For each option or alternative, circle T if it is true and F if false.<br />Question 1. Statement or stem.<br />T F a. Option or alternative<br />T F b. Option <br />T F c. Option <br />T F d. Option<br />
  23. 23. Multiple True-False Example<br />A virus:<br />*T F a. Can cause disease.<br /> T *F b. Can reproduce by itself.<br /> T *F c. Is composed of large living cells.<br />*T F d. Lives in plant and animal cells.<br />
  24. 24. Multiple Correct Response<br />Directions: Which of the following statements are valid? Write<br /> "A" if 1, 2, and 3 are valid statements."B" if only 1 and 3 are valid statements."C" if only 2 and 4 are valid statements."D" if only 4 is a valid statement."E" if all are valid statements.<br />
  25. 25. Multiple Correct Response Example<br />The fluid imbalance known as edema is commonly associated with:<br />1. Allergic reactions.<br />2. Congestive heart failure.<br />3. Extensive burns.<br />4. Protein deficiency.<br />The correct answer is:<br />a. 1, 2, and 3.<br />b. 1 and 3.<br />c. 2 and 4.<br />d. 4 only.<br />*e. 1, 2, 3, and 4.<br />
  26. 26. Alternative Response Items<br /><ul><li>Stem contains a declarative statement.
  27. 27. Response choices (true/false, yes/no, right/wrong, correct/incorrect, fact/opinion, agree/disagree).
  28. 28. Measures the ability to correctly identify the correctness of statements of fact, definitions of terms, or statements of principles (simple learning outcomes)</li></li></ul><li>Tips to Remember<br /><ul><li>If you are simply doing T/F stay away from opinion statements.
  29. 29. Keep the stem clear and concise (avoid complex sentences).
  30. 30. Do not use subjective words such as frequently, most, some, few, usually, often etc.
  31. 31. Do not use absolute terms such as always, never, all, none, or only.
  32. 32. Avoid the use of negative terms: no, not.
  33. 33. Keep a balanced response set </li></li></ul><li>Advantages and Limitations<br /><ul><li>Efficient
  34. 34. Easy to construct
  35. 35. Provides for a wide-sampling of material
  36. 36. Limited to measuring at the knowledge level
  37. 37. Susceptibility to guessing </li>