Bees, Pollination & Honey


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Bees, Pollination & Honey

  1. 2. The Honeybee gets it’s Latin name apis mellifera from it’s function, collecting pollen. <ul><li>Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Insecta </li></ul><ul><li>Order Hymenoptera </li></ul><ul><li>Suborder Apocrita </li></ul><ul><li>Superfamily Apoidea </li></ul><ul><li>unranked Anthophila </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Bees have a long a complex &quot;tongue&quot; or proboscis for gathering nectar, two pairs of wings (the hind pair being the smaller of the two), five eyes, and six legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Bees also have a stinger, which will cause the death of the bee if lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Bees carry pollen on their hind legs in pollen baskets called corbiculas. </li></ul><ul><li>Bees fly at about 20 mph, and have been in existence for an estimated 30 million years. </li></ul><ul><li>Male bees are known as ‘drones’, while all females except the queen are ‘worker bees.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Worker honeybees are about five-eighths of an inch long and are brown or black with yellow-striped abdomens. Africanized honeybees are slightly smaller than the regular honeybee, but the bees look so much alike that only lab analysis can tell them apart. </li></ul>Anatomy of the Bee
  3. 4. <ul><li>The average beehive holds around 50,000 bees; communication is mainly through pheromones </li></ul><ul><li>Foragers must collect nectar from about 2 million flowers to make 1 pound of honey! </li></ul><ul><li>The average forager makes about 1/12th of a teaspoon of honey in her lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, the average per capita honey consumption is 1.3 pounds/person (that’s over 2 million flowers a year!) </li></ul><ul><li>Bees are the major pollinator in all ecosystems that contain flowering plants; honey production secondary to this vital role in agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Bees pollinate approximately 130 agricultural crops in the US including fruit, fiber, nut, and vegetable crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Bee pollination adds approximately 14 billion dollars annually to improved crop yield and quality. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, 1/3 of the human food supply depends on pollination accomplished by bees, especially the domesticated European honeybee. </li></ul>Bee Facts
  4. 5. The Importance of Bees <ul><li>The subject of bees is a source of growing concern for world agriculture, economics, and all people on Earth. Managed populations of European honeybees have declined substantially, prompting investigation into the nature and extent of the losses. Colony Collapse Disorder is believed to be a major factor, but other causes, such as pesticides may also play a role. This subject is vital to every agricultural crop and every pollen-producing plant on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>In the article, “The Bees' Needs,” the Natural Resources Defense Council has this to say, “Honey bees are mysteriously vanishing across the country, putting $15 billion worth of fruits, nuts and vegetables at risk… The government recognizes cows, pigs and corn as agricultural commodities, but not the critical honeybees… In 2007, Congress recognized Colony Collapse Disorder as a threat and granted the U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency funds to study honeybee disappearances. In addition, the 2008 Farm Bill grants the Department of Agriculture $20 million each year to support bee research and related work. But the Department of Agriculture has yet to produce significant results.” </li></ul>
  5. 6. Partial List of Crop Plants Pollinated by Bees <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>tropical 3-great nut Honey bees, Stingless bees, bumblebees, Solitary bees ( Centris tarsata ), Butterflies, flies, hummingbirds Anacardium occidentale Cashew tropical 4-essential fruit Solitary bees Vanilla planifolia , Vanilla pompona Vanilla temperate 4-essential fruit Honey bees, Solitary bees, Bumblebees, Hover flies Sorbus aucuparia Rowanberry tropical 4-essential fruit Carpenter bees, Solitary bees, bumblebees, humming birds Passiflora edulis Passion Fruit, Maracuja tropical 4-essential nut Honey bees, Stingless bees ( Trigona carbonaria ), Solitary bees ( Homalictus spp.), Wasps, Butterflies Macadamia ternifolia Macadamia temperate 4-essential fruit Honey bees, Squash bees, Bumblebees, Solitary bees Cucurbita spp. Squash (plant), Pumpkin, Gourd, Marrow, Zuchini temperate 4-essential fruit Honey bees, Squash bees, bumblebees, Solitary bees ( Ceratina spp.) Cucumis melo L. Cantaloupe, Melon temperate 4-essential fruit Honey bees, bumblebees, solitary bees Citrullus lanatus Watermelon tropical 4-essential nut Bumblebees, Orchid bees ( Euglossini ), Carpenter bees Bertholletia excelsa Brazil nut 4-essential fruit Honey bees, Bumblebees, Solitary bees Actinidia deliciosa Kiwifruit Geography of cultivation Pollinator impact Commercial product of pollination Pollinator Latin name Common name
  6. 7. More Crop Plants Pollinated by Bees <ul><li>Carambola, Starfruit </li></ul><ul><li>Turnip, Canola </li></ul><ul><li>Coriander </li></ul><ul><li>Cucumber </li></ul><ul><li>Cardamom </li></ul><ul><li>Loquat </li></ul><ul><li>Buckwheat </li></ul><ul><li>Feijoa </li></ul><ul><li>Fennel </li></ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul><ul><li>Mango </li></ul><ul><li>Avocado </li></ul><ul><li>Allspice </li></ul><ul><li>Apricot </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet Cherry </li></ul><ul><li>Sour cherry </li></ul><ul><li>Plum, Greengage, Mirabelle, Sloe </li></ul><ul><li>Almond </li></ul><ul><li>Peach, Nectarine </li></ul><ul><li>Pear </li></ul><ul><li>Rose hips, Dogroses </li></ul><ul><li>Raspberry </li></ul><ul><li>Blackberry </li></ul><ul><li>Naranjillo </li></ul><ul><li>Blueberry </li></ul><ul><li>Eggplant </li></ul><ul><li>Okra </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberry tree </li></ul><ul><li>Mustard </li></ul><ul><li>Rapeseed </li></ul><ul><li>Jack bean, Horse bean, Sword Bean </li></ul><ul><li>Caraway </li></ul><ul><li>Chestnut </li></ul><ul><li>Coconut </li></ul><ul><li>Coffea spp. Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora </li></ul>Hyacinth bean Strawberry Soybean Cotton Sunflower Mammee Cactus, Prickly pear Guava Pomegranate Black currant, Red currant Elderberry Sesame Service Tree Broad bean Karite Jujube Chile pepper, Red pepper, Bell pepper, Green pepper Beet Pigeon pea, Cajan Pea, Congo bean Papaya Safflower Star apple, Cainito Tangerine Tangelo Azarole Guar bean, Goa bean Longan Persimmon Flax Lychee Rambutan Lima bean, Kidney bean, Haricot bean, Adzuki bean, Mungo bean, String bean Hog plum Tamarind Cowpea, Black-eyed pea, Blackeye bean Crownvetch Grape Bucket orchid Onion Celery Broccoli Cauliflower Cabbage Brussels sprouts Chinese cabbage Hazelnut Quince Carrot Stanhopea Walnut Lupine Acerola Alfalfa Sainfoin Scarlet runner bean Boysenberry Clover (not all species) White clover Alsike clover Crimson clover Red clover Arrowleaf clover Cranberry Tung tree Vetch
  7. 8. The History of the Bee… <ul><li>According to scientists at the University of Illinois, all honeybees alive today have a common ancestor in Africa, including African &quot;killer&quot; bees in the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>Man’s relationship with honeybees is ancient. In The Spider Cave ( la Cueva de la Araña ) in Bicor, Spain, drawings depict a honey-hunting scene that dates back to Paleolithic times, at least 15,000 years ago. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>4000 years ago Egyptians kept hives, used honey, propolis, and wax. The honeybee was actually a symbol of Lower Egypt. (Propolis is a resinous mixture that honeybees collect from tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. It is used as a sealant for unwanted open spaces in the hive. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Apiculture, or beekeeping, comes from the Latin roots apis “bee” and cultura “cultivation through education.” Apiculture was a common practice in ancient Greece and Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Honeybees and apiculture were spread to the New World by European colonists; in 1622 the first shipment delivered Black German honeybees (subspecies A. mellifera mellifera ) from England to Virginia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the mid-1800s, Lorenzo L. Langstroth patented a hive with moveable frames that remains the model for hive construction today. In the early 20th century, the first mechanical honey extractor (which uses centrifugal force) was used, as well as the smoker, drugs to treat bee diseases, and many other advancements in use today. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1956, a subspecies from the savannahs of Africa, A. m. scutellata , was introduced to Brazil in an attempt to increase honey production. The descendants of these African honeybees rapidly spread northward and southward from Brazil, hybridizing with and displacing previously introduced European honeybees. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, honeybees inhabit every corner of the earth except the Polar Regions. </li></ul>Man’s Relationship with Bees
  9. 10. Growing Requirements / Hive Care <ul><li>Langstroth’s Hive </li></ul><ul><li>Outer cover: metal-sheathed for durability, protects the hive from weather </li></ul><ul><li>Inner cover: has a hole for ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow super: generally used for honey harvest, weighs 40 lb. when full </li></ul><ul><li>Frames: contain wax foundation sheets with honeycomb pattern to guide bees in building regular combs with uniform cells </li></ul><ul><li>Bee Space: about 5/16” surrounding the frames on all sides </li></ul><ul><li>Queen excluder: a flat grille that prevents the Queen from leaving the brooding chamber but allows the Workers to pass through </li></ul><ul><li>Brood and Food chambers: deep supers in which the Queen lays her eggs, food supplies are also stored here, weighs 75 lb. when full </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance Cleat: moveable wooden block with different sized openings which allows the entrance to be widened or narrowed </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Board </li></ul>
  10. 11. Tools and Equipment <ul><li>Hat and netting to protect the face and neck </li></ul><ul><li>White or lightly colored over-all’s (darker colors irritate bees and make them more likely to sting) </li></ul><ul><li>Smoker to calm the bees; burns wood scraps </li></ul><ul><li>Hive tool is used to pry open the hive and to loosen the frames </li></ul><ul><li>Uncapping knife is electrically heated which makes cutting the wax easier </li></ul><ul><li>Centrifugal extractor can be hand or motor powered; spins the comb to extract the honey without damaging the comb </li></ul>
  11. 12. Hive Care <ul><li>Location, location, location!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture and wetness are bad for a hive, stay away from low ground and hollows that might collect water. Lifting the hive up on bricks or blocks can help. </li></ul><ul><li>Because both extreme heat and extreme cold can kill off an entire hive, a microclimate must be maintained to ensure the survival of the colony. The hive should be sheltered from the wind, but must also get adequate sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal inside temperature of a hive is 93° F, and the bees must consume or “burn” honey to maintain this temperature in colder weather, which also lowers honey yield. In warmer weather, afternoon shade is recommended to combat over-heating. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing bees with an abundant food supply is as good for the beekeeper as it is for the bees. This is not often a problem since bees travel up to two miles from the hive. </li></ul><ul><li>Some favorite bee blossoms are alfalfa, aster, basswood, clover, dandelion, goldenrod, orange (and other citrus), sage, and tupelo blossoms, commonly thought to produce the “best” honey. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Steps for Harvesting Honey <ul><li>Choose a sunny, windless day for harvesting honey, since bees are the calmest then. The first step is to drive the bees away from the honeycombs. Begin by blowing smoke through the hive entrance to quiet the bees. A few puffs are all that are needed; too much smoke may injure the bees. </li></ul><ul><li>Wait a few minutes for the smoke to take effect. Then pry the outer cover loose with your hive tool and lift it off. Blow more smoke in through the hole in the inner cover. Remove the inner cover and blow smoke across the tops of the frames to drive the bees downward and out of the way. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove the super and pry the fames loose with the hive tool. Be careful not to crush any bees (a crushed bee releases a scent that stimulates other bees to attack). Gently brush off bees that cling to the frames. A comb is ready to be harvested if it is 80% sealed over. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncap the combs in a bee-proof location, such as a lightly screened room. (If the bees can get at the honey, they may steal it back!) Slice off the comb tops with a sharp knife warmed in hot water. You can use two, warming one while cutting with the other, or use an electric knife. </li></ul><ul><li>Use an extractor if available to remove honey from the combs. Combs can be recycled for 20 years or more. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Storing Honey <ul><li>Newly extracted honey should be strained through cheesecloth to remove wax and other impurities. (A double layer of damp cheesecloth in a wire sieve makes a good honey strainer.) Let the strained honey stand several days so that air bubbles can rise to the top; then skim them off. To prevent fermentation and retard crystallization, heat the honey to 150° F before bottling it. To do this, place the honey container in a water bath on a stove. Check the temperature carefully with a candy thermometer, since over-heating will spoil the flavor. Next, pour the honey into clean, dry containers with tight seals; mason jars are recommended. Store the honey in a warm, dry room at an ideal temperature of 80° F. If the honey crystallizes (a natural process) it can be liquefied by heating in hot water and stirring occasionally. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Grading Honey <ul><li>A voluntary grading system using USDA standards is based on water content, flavor and aroma, clarity and absence of defects. </li></ul><ul><li>Min. Total Solids (%) Max Water Content (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Grade A 81.4 18.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Grade B  81.4 18.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Grade C 80.0 20.0 </li></ul>The colors of honey form a continuous range from water white to dark amber. The color of honey is related to its mineral content and is characteristic of its floral source. Light colored honey typically has a mild flavor, while dark colored honey is usually stronger in flavor. The Pfund color grader is a device used by the honey industry to measure the color of honey. The respective color designations, applicable range of each color, color range on the Pfund scale and optical density of freshly prepared caramel-glycerin solutions (USDA method) are presented on the following Color Designations table . Color Name Pfund Scale (mm)   Optical Density 1 Water White  < 8  0.0945 Extra White   9-17  0.189 White  18-34   0.378 Extra Light Amber  35-50  0.595 Light Amber  51-85  1.389 Amber   86-114  3.008 Dark Amber  > 114  — 1. Optical density (absorbance = 100/percent transmittance), at 560 nm for 3.15 cm thickness for caramel-glycerin solutions measured versus equal cell containing glycerin.
  15. 16. Uses for Honey <ul><li>Edible Items </li></ul><ul><li>Bakery items </li></ul><ul><li>Beverages </li></ul><ul><li>Cereal and cereal bars </li></ul><ul><li>Confections </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Meat products </li></ul><ul><li>Sauces, snacks, and spreads </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Care and Home Remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Lip balms </li></ul><ul><li>Hand & Body Lotions </li></ul><ul><li>Facial/skin cleansers </li></ul><ul><li>Cough suppressants / Cold Remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Poultices </li></ul><ul><li>Life-saving remedy for people suffering from diabetic shock </li></ul>
  16. 17. Image Bee-bliography <ul><li>Slide 1. The Bee: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 2. Bee in Blue: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 3. Anatomy of the Bee: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 4. Bee Hive: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 8. Cave: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 9. Lady with Bee Beard: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 10. Langstroth’s Hive: Reader’s Digest, Back to Basics, Beekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 11. Photo 1 Beekeeper: </li></ul><ul><li>Photo 2 Beekeeping Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 12. Hives: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 14. Honey: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 16. Pooh Bear: </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 18. Yellow bee: </li></ul>