Introduction To Permaculture Weekend Course


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An introduction to Permaculture Course first given at the Hawkesbury Earthcare Centre in April 2009 by Penny & Karim
& Kat

The course is based on Bill Mollison's "Introduction to Permaculture"

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  • 9.00-9.20 Welcome message – acknowledge elders past and present Introduce myself, Karim and Kat Welcome to the EarthCare Centre (give history of HDRA & ATA) 3 not for profit organisations - all course fees (less catering) go to the EarthCare Centre House keeping –agenda – breaks - food – coffee – drinking water - compost toilets – look at books in breaks - ask questions as we go along RUB HANDS Group intros – name - where they live - occupation – where they first heard the word Permaculture Those that already know about PC/have been growing – next step might be consider teaching or consulting – schools etc
  • Introduction To Permaculture Weekend Course

    1. 1. <ul><li>We would respectfully like to acknowledge the Traditional Owners of the land on which this event is taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>The local Mob for this part of the country are the Darug People. </li></ul><ul><li>They inhabited the Cumberland Plain : They didn't consider themselves owners of the land, rather custodians. </li></ul>Welcome Message
    2. 2. <ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Resources to Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Population Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Loss </li></ul>Environmental, Social and Health Issues
    3. 3. Why Permaculture? The Stages of Change Model After DiClemente, 2003
    4. 4. <ul><li>Bill Mollison </li></ul><ul><li>“ Permaculture (Permanent Agriculture) is the conscious design and maintenance of cultivated ecosystems which have the diversity, stability & resilience of natural ecosystems. It is the harmonious integration of landscape, people & appropriate technologies, providing good, shelter, energy & other needs in a sustainable way. Permaculture is a philosophy and an approach to land use which works with natural rhythms & patterns, weaving together the elements of microclimate, annual & perennial plants, animals, water & soil management, & human needs into intricately connected & productive communities. Permaculture is a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted & thoughtful observation rather than protracted & thoughtless action; of looking at systems in all their functions rather than asking only one yield of them & of allowing systems to demonstrate their own evolutions.” </li></ul><ul><li>David Holmgren </li></ul><ul><li>“ Permaculture draws together the diverse ideas, skills and ways of living which need to be rediscovered and developed in order to empower us to move from being dependant consumers to becoming more responsible and productive citizens.” </li></ul>What is Permaculture?
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Dawn Shiner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Patterned after the natural & diverse systems of nature, Permaculture is a design science that weaves together our individual human needs with the microclimates, plants, animals, micro-organisms, water & soil management, thus allowing us as individuals to take responsibility for our life-styles & design our way out of unsustainable cultural patterns while meeting the realities of the 20th Century.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dan Hemenway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Permaculture is a term used to describe the application of ecosystem design principles to design sustainable human habitation, including supply of water, food, energy, shelter, income, aesthetics, community & other needs, & amenities. Permaculture stresses careful observation & integration into natural design for each place as an alternative both to the drudgery of continually labouring & to excessive reliance on complex technologies, which are inherently unstable.” </li></ul></ul>What is Permaculture?
    6. 6. <ul><li>Care of the Earth: Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply. </li></ul><ul><li>Care of People: Provision for people to access those resources necessary to their existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing Surplus: By governing our own needs, we can set resources aside to further the above principles. </li></ul>Ethical Basis of Permaculture
    7. 7. Permaculture Principles Observe & interact Catch & store energy Obtain a yield Apply self-regulation and accept feedback Use & value renewable resources & services Produce no waste Design from patterns to details Integrate rather than segregate Use small and slow solutions Use and value diversity Use edges and value the marginal Creatively use and respond to change Diversity Energy Cycling Edge Effects (microclimate) Multifunction Back up your major functions Relative Location Energy Efficient Planning Accelerate Succession & Evolution Small Scale Intensive Systems Use Biological Resources Attitudinal Principles David Holmgren Bill Mollison
    8. 8. <ul><li>Diversity = Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity on several levels: </li></ul><ul><li>* Products </li></ul><ul><li>* Time </li></ul><ul><li>* Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>* Trade </li></ul><ul><li>* Climate </li></ul>Principle 1: DIVERSITY By designing a diverse system we can achieve stability. However, it’s not the number of elements we have in a system which creates stability, but the functional connection between the elements.
    9. 9. <ul><li>Monoculture vs Polyculture </li></ul>Principle 1: DIVERSITY Monoculture: A sole crop referring to a component crop being grown alone and, unless otherwise indicated, at optimum population and spacing <ul><li>yield decline and instability </li></ul><ul><li>declining economic returns </li></ul><ul><li>difficulties with pests and disease </li></ul><ul><li>poisoning of food, atmosphere, soils and water </li></ul><ul><li>decline in food quality </li></ul><ul><li>biodiversity reduction </li></ul><ul><li>non-renewable resource use </li></ul><ul><li>poor energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>the decline of rural culture and land management expertise </li></ul>
    10. 10. Principle 1: DIVERSITY Polyculture: Using multiple crops in the same space, in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops. It includes crop rotation, multi-cropping, intercropping, companion planting and beneficial weeds. <ul><li>avoids susceptibility to disease </li></ul><ul><li>increased yield per unit area </li></ul><ul><li>increases local biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>year-round ground cover (soil protection) </li></ul><ul><li>better use of available nutrients and water in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>evenly distributed provision of food (for self-reliance) </li></ul><ul><li>evenly distributed provision of products (for market) </li></ul><ul><li>lower production risks, if one crop fails the other(s) still provide a harvest </li></ul><ul><li>improved microclimate, water balance, and internal nutrient cycling when tree crops are included </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Conservation of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy is not created or destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(however) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second law of Thermodynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time </li></ul></ul>Principle 2: ENERGY CYCLING – scientific principles
    12. 12. <ul><li>Energy cycle in Australian natural ecosystem </li></ul>Principle 2: ENERGY CYCLING: observe natural system Photosynthesis (in green plants) Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight Carbohydrates + Oxygen Respiration (in plants and animals) Carbohydrates + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Metabolic Energy
    13. 13. <ul><li>Food production linear system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires continual replenishment of external inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unwanted outputs generates waste/pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can design a system in which </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy can be captured and cycled within the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each use adds some value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste is minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the energy cycling principle in system design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External inputs and unwanted outputs generates waste </li></ul></ul>Principle 2: ENERGY CYCLING – scientific principles
    14. 14. <ul><li>Edges are where two ecosystems meet and overlap </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples </li></ul><ul><li>Building meets road </li></ul><ul><li>Forests or orchards at the edge of meadows or paddocks </li></ul><ul><li>Desert Borders </li></ul><ul><li>Edges of rivers and ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Shoreline where ocean meets land mass - tidal pools, coral reefs </li></ul>Principle 3: EDGE EFFECTS - Observation
    15. 15. <ul><li>Energies or materials accumulate at edges attracting a wealth of diverse inhabitants! </li></ul><ul><li>Example interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Dust debris and food litter dropped by people outside a restaurant, attracts insects and wildlife from neighbouring street. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil, seeds & debris are blown by wind against trees, shrubs, fences. Provide food and resting place for animals and birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Seashells and seaweed form a line at the tide-marks on a beach, small creatures washed up, food for seagulls and crabs </li></ul><ul><li>Logs or rocks in the river trap mulch, microbes, fungal hyphae, worms attracted to this nutrient rich environment </li></ul>Principle 3: EDGE EFFECTS - Energy Capture
    16. 16. Principle 3: EDGE EFFECTS - summary <ul><li>By paying attention to and designing edges we can : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Areas and microclimates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively capture wild energies and nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase diversity and yields </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Principle 3: EDGE EFFECTS in design We can use our observations to create positive advantages and increase productivity and yields in our designs.
    18. 18. <ul><li>Seed suppliers: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> (fruit trees) </li></ul><ul><li>Yates </li></ul><ul><li>Fotersgills </li></ul><ul><li>Honey Suckle Nursery (KurraYong) </li></ul>Tour of the EarthCare Garden
    19. 19. <ul><li>Seed suppliers: </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenix (Tasmania) </li></ul><ul><li>The Lostseeds (Tasmania) </li></ul><ul><li>The Italian Gardeners </li></ul><ul><li>Vilmore Australia (French seeds Company) </li></ul><ul><li>Kings Seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Diggers </li></ul><ul><li>New Gippsland Seed and Bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Tompson & Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>D B Brown </li></ul>Tour of the EarthCare Garden
    20. 20. <ul><li>Each element in a permaculture system is chosen so that it performs as many functions as possible </li></ul><ul><li>NFP analysis (Needs/Functions/Products) on each element </li></ul><ul><li>A deficit in inputs creates work, whereas a deficit in output creates pollution </li></ul>Principle 4: MULTIFUNCTION
    21. 21. <ul><li>The functions of each element will be considered when placing them in the permaculture design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timber lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herb & vegetable garden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse </li></ul></ul>Principle 4: MULTIFUNCTION
    22. 22. Principle 4: MULTIFUNCTION
    23. 23. <ul><li>Ensure that each major function is provided for by more than one element – if one fails, the system will still be resilient: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire control </li></ul></ul>Principle 5: BACKING UP MAJOR FUNCTIONS
    24. 24. <ul><li>Make connections between the inputs and outputs of each element. When this occurs, the elements are working together, which is work you don’t have to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Base our linking strategies to these questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of what use are the products of this particular element to the needs of other elements? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What needs of this element are supplied by other elements? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It becomes clear that many components provide the needs and accept the products of other elements. </li></ul>Principle 6: RELATIVE LOCATION
    25. 25. Principle 6: RELATIVE LOCATION
    26. 26. <ul><li>Zone Planning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing elements according to how much we use them or how often we need to service them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oftenest = Nearest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If an element that requires 2 visits a day is placed an extra 10m away you will have to walk an additional 14.5km a year </li></ul></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    27. 27. <ul><li>Zone Planning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 0: Home or centre of activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 1: Most controlled and intensively used area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 2: Maintained with dense plantings, drip irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 3: Un-pruned/un-mulched orchards, larger pastures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 4: Semi-managed semi-wild </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 5: Unmanaged or barely managed wilderness </li></ul></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    28. 28. <ul><li>We can look upon an urban setting in the context of the five zones: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 1: urban allotments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 2: street-scapes, parks & playgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 3: shopping centres, playing fields & golf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 4: Road, river, railway, industrial areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zone 5: National and state parks or urban fringe </li></ul></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    29. 29. <ul><li>Deals with Energy Flows </li></ul><ul><li>How can we categorise Energy as it relates to our site? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy that runs through site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(wind, water, sun light & fire) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy that is available on site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(people, animals, machines, wastes & fuels) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How do these Energies relate to Permaculture as a Design Science? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonising, slowing, pacifying & multi-use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What Priorities do we set for site Design? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    30. 30. <ul><li>Sector Analysis deals with Wild Energies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rain – 10, 50, 100 Year Floods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, streams, creeks & springs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind - Hot & Cold Winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Summer Winds – Bushfire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Winter Winds & Frosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winter & Summer Sun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. susdesign .com/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wildlife Tracks or Paths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desirable & Undesirable Views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Roads, Paths & Tracks </li></ul></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    31. 31. Topology or Relief Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    32. 32. <ul><li>Slope Analysis deals predominantly with Water </li></ul><ul><li>But may also include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun Angles – for growing areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winds, Fire Hazards & Frosts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools for Slope Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS Printouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Google Earth </li></ul></ul></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    33. 33. <ul><li>Slope Analysis </li></ul>From Introduction to Permaculture, Bill Mollison Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    34. 34. <ul><li>Slope Analysis </li></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    35. 35. <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Once the analysis is done, we know that every element is in a good place for three reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative to site resources – ZONE PLANNNG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative to external energies – SECTOR ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative to slope or elevation – SLOPE ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul>Principle 7: EFFICIENT ENERGY PLANNING
    36. 36. <ul><ul><li>Reasons to Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle 1: Diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle 2: Energy Cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle 3: Edge Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle 4: Multifunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle 5: Backing up Major Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle 6: Relative Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle 7: Efficient Energy Planning </li></ul></ul>SUMMARY DAY 1
    37. 37. <ul><li>Characteristics of humus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pockets - forms a spongelike consistency, provides ventilation for roots (root tips wear out if soil it too compact) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds moisture - because of its spongelike consistency, it holds moisture, whilst allowing drainage, meaning soils don’t get waterlogged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binds soil - binds particles together, making it easier for water and air to penetrate, and prevents erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds nutrients and minerals – like a magnet, they catch positively charged ions such as potassium, iron, calcium, copper and ammonium </li></ul></ul>SOILS
    38. 38. SOILS - initial observation With simple tests we can get some ideas about the nature of the soil we are working with. Take a handful of soil how does it feel, smell? Does it hold together, is it wet? Put some in a jar with water, give it a good shake, and let this settle for at least 15 minutes. Leave for 24 hours for clear results The soil will settle into layers in order of particle size and density, and can be surprising sand - large particles do not bond, does not hold water silt - organic matter, holds moisture & nutrients clay - minute particles which trap water
    39. 39. SOILS Soil types by clay, silt and sand composition. Image by Richard Wheeler Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License.
    40. 40. SOILS <ul><li>Nutrients and Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Humus particles hold onto the nutrients which plants need, so they can pick and chose as needed. Healthy organic soils can provide the perfect balance of food that plants need. </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble fertilisers force-feed the plants, so chemically grown vegetables are un-balanced in nutrients. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add nutrients and minerals in small scale systems with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manures, food waste, animal bodies, seaweed, water plants, rock dust, urine, legumes, dynamic accumulators (the weeds from that garden) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On a large scale with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock dust (replaces exported minerals), legumes and green manures, animal manures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests sent to SWEPS Melbourne $140 </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. <ul><li>Nutrients and Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>To be healthy, plants need access to the full range of macro and micro-nutrients from the soil . </li></ul>SOILS <ul><li>Some are needed in larger amounts (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), others are needed in only tiny amounts, but each plays a vital role in the health of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>If one nutrient is missing or in excess, it can cause others to be locked up and unavailable also. </li></ul>Molybdenum Sodium Boron Copper Cobalt Manganese Zinc Iron Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Sulphur Calcium Magnesium Micro-nutrients Macro-nutrients
    42. 42. SOILS <ul><li>Testing PH, testing Nutrient availability in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>In general, a pH between 6-7.5 is good. </li></ul><ul><li>As the pH moves away from the desired range nutrients become unavailable </li></ul><ul><li> Acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low pH = leaching of heavy metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes toxic at 4.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All dissolves at 3.5 = plant poison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red litmus paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add alkaline materials e.g. crushed limestone, gypsum, dolomite, chalk, shells, egg shell </li></ul>
    43. 43. SOILS <ul><li>Testing PH, testing Nutrient availability in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Alkaline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High pH = heavy metals unavailable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue litmus paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add a high nitrogen source i.e. manures, sulphur </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphate of ammonia is often recommended but this will kill earthworms and other soil life </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>The best option to correct pH is to add organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>If soils contain plenty of humus, there will be different pockets of different pH ranges all over the place and the plants can seek out the conditions they desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Humus is neutral, so it takes all soils toward a neutral pH </li></ul><ul><li>Mulched gardens rarely show deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Provide moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the structure (don’t compact the soil) </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Continue adding organic matter </li></ul>SOILS
    45. 45. <ul><li>Why Compost? </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces waste </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces landfill problems </li></ul><ul><li>Makes great food for your garden </li></ul><ul><li>Saves you money </li></ul><ul><li>Fun and educational </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    46. 46. <ul><li>Bokashi </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese term that means “fermented organic matter” </li></ul><ul><li>Bran based material that has been fermented with EM liquid concentrate and dried for storage </li></ul><ul><li>EM is an abbreviation for Effective Microorganisms </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    47. 47. <ul><li>Bokashi – what to add </li></ul><ul><li>Add any kitchen organic waste including: </li></ul><ul><li>Cooked and uncooked meats, and fish </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese and eggs, bread, coffee grinds, tea bags </li></ul><ul><li>Keep portions small </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t add: </li></ul><ul><li>Liquids (including oils) </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and plastic wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Meat bones </li></ul><ul><li>Avocado seed </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    48. 48. <ul><li>Bokashi – getting started </li></ul><ul><li>Collect food scraps in a closed container on the bench and only open the Bokashi bucket once a day (or every 2 nd day) </li></ul><ul><li>Begin by evenly sprinkling the EM Bokashi into the bottom of the bucket </li></ul><ul><li>Put in the food and sprinkle more EM Bokashi on top (one handful per 3-4 cm of food) </li></ul><ul><li>Press contents down to remove any excess air (a container lid works well) then reseal the bucket properly </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat this process until the bucket is full and then top up with a generous coating of EM </li></ul><ul><li>Leave to ferment for a minimum 10 days </li></ul><ul><li>Bury the food waste under 2 inches of soil </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    49. 49. <ul><li>Using EM liquid </li></ul>COMPOSTING <ul><li>Fertilise the garden: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On existing garden or house plants - use 1 teaspoon to 1 litre of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly to the soil - for trees and shrubs use 2 teaspoons to 1 litre of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly to foliage as pest control – use 1 teaspoon to 2 litres of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pour the concentrated liquid directly into your kitchen and bathroom sinks, down drains, toilets or septic system. </li></ul>
    50. 50. <ul><li>Good signs: </li></ul><ul><li>Bucket should smell like pickles or cider vinegar </li></ul><ul><li>Food should look the same as when you put it in (food has been preserved) </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally, particularly for longer fermentation periods, a white cotton-like fungi growth may appear on the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad signs: </li></ul><ul><li>Smell: A strong rancid or rotten smell indicates a poor batch of compost </li></ul><ul><li>Visual: The presence of black or blue-green fungi indicates that contamination has occurred and the process has not fermented but putrefied </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    51. 51. <ul><li>Why it goes wrong: </li></ul><ul><li>Not adding enough Bokashi </li></ul><ul><li>Opening the bucket too often </li></ul><ul><li>Not replacing the container lid tightly after every use </li></ul><ul><li>Not draining the juice frequently from the bucket (preferably use within 2 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged and direct exposure to sunlight and extreme temperatures (too hot or too cold) </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    52. 52. <ul><li>Berkeley Method </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is Carbon to Nitrogen 25:1 </li></ul>COMPOSTING <ul><li>Compost calculator: </li></ul>Weeds 19:1 Sawdust 450:1 Food waste 15:1 Shredded office paper 129:1 Grass clippings 15:1 Newspaper 54:1 Cow manure 13:1 Straw/wheat 53:1 Poultry manure 10:1 Dry fallen leaves 47:1 Urine 7:1 Fresh leaves 37:1 Greens (Nitrogen Sources) Browns (Carbon Sources)
    53. 53. <ul><li>What should I leave out of the compost? </li></ul><ul><li>Woody garden clippings – branches, roots (unless chipped) </li></ul><ul><li>Treated wood products </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds with bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Diseased plant material </li></ul><ul><li>Cat and dog droppings </li></ul><ul><li>Manure from animals recently wormed </li></ul><ul><li>Materials that kill the composting bacteria – fat, oil, salt, disinfectants, antibiotics, herbicides, pesticides (or waste recently sprayed with pesticides) </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    54. 54. <ul><li>The compost heap needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    55. 55. <ul><li>Building the compost heap: </li></ul><ul><li>Soak the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Start building the pile, mixing the carbon sources with nitrogen sources, with an activator in the middle (e.g. comfrey, nettles, urine, old compost, seaweed, manure) </li></ul><ul><li>Wet the pile so that if squeezing a handful, moisture appears between your fingers but doesn’t drip off (or one drip falls at most) </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with plastic to deter rodents and protect from the rain </li></ul><ul><li>Turn on the 4th day, then every 2nd day for 18 days, keeping the moisture right </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    56. 56. <ul><li>Correcting the compost heap: </li></ul>COMPOSTING <ul><li>Too wet – if it’s still too wet after forming a tunnel, add a carbon source such as shredded paper </li></ul><ul><li>Not hot enough – add nitrogen source (e.g. 1 handful of manure on every pitchfork during the turn, or urine) </li></ul><ul><li>Too hot – add carbon source (if over 65 o C) </li></ul><ul><li>White film – is an anaerobic indicator that it’s too hot - add carbon source </li></ul><ul><li>Bad smell – add carbon source (all compost releases some smell when turned) </li></ul><ul><li>Losing too much volume – add carbon source </li></ul><ul><li>Vermin - Sprinkle cayenne pepper around the pile, secure the tarp with bricks </li></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>Worm Farm </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    58. 58. <ul><li>Worm Food </li></ul>COMPOSTING
    59. 59. <ul><li>Worm Farm </li></ul>COMPOSTING <ul><li>Handy tips: </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t let it dry out </li></ul><ul><li>Use the juice regularly (dilute up to 20:1), don’t leave it lying around </li></ul><ul><li>Flies: add lime, newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Food not being digested, smelly; too much food </li></ul><ul><li>Ants ; add water, lime, isolate </li></ul><ul><li>White worms: too acidic; add lime ash </li></ul><ul><li>Going on holiday? Feed worms generously before you go- they will survive 3-4 weeks. For longer periods consider manure </li></ul><ul><li>Can feed some of the worms to chooks to raise egg production </li></ul>
    60. 60. <ul><li>Worm Farm </li></ul>COMPOSTING <ul><li>Harvesting the castings: </li></ul><ul><li>After 3 months the castings are ready to use (should be black) </li></ul><ul><li>Move the cover and excess scraps </li></ul><ul><li>Put something like a sloppy mango in one corner and only cover that corner </li></ul><ul><li>2 days later 95% of the worms will be in that corner </li></ul><ul><li>Put them in a bucket to remove the castings </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuild the farm </li></ul><ul><li>Put the worms back in </li></ul>
    61. 61. <ul><li>Worm Biology </li></ul>COMPOSTING From Wormpost Northeast
    62. 62. <ul><li>Natural ecosystems: develop and change over time, giving rise to a succession of different plant and animal species : </li></ul><ul><li>So what do we mean by Succession & Evolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider for a moment an Abandoned Pasture </li></ul><ul><li>1. weeds and herbs </li></ul><ul><li>2. pioneer plants </li></ul><ul><li>3. climax species </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional agriculture fights this process: by attempting to keep the ecosystem at the weed/herb level (e.g. vegetables, grains, legumes, pasture) </li></ul><ul><li>This is done using energy to keep it cut, weeded, tilled, fertilised and even burnt. </li></ul><ul><li>So how can we apply the Natural Process to our advantage? </li></ul>Principle 8: ACCELERATING SUCCESSION & EVOLUTION
    63. 63. <ul><li>Basic layers in every forest: </li></ul><ul><li>Climax trees </li></ul><ul><li>Under storey trees </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubs and bushes </li></ul><ul><li>Herbaceous plants </li></ul><ul><li>Ground cover </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical layer (climbers) </li></ul><ul><li>In some climates other layers may exist: </li></ul><ul><li>Clumpers </li></ul><ul><li>Root yield layer </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent palms (wet tropics only) </li></ul>Principle 8: ACCELERATING SUCCESSION & EVOLUTION
    64. 64. <ul><li>Layers in a productive forest: </li></ul><ul><li>Canopy (large fruit & nut trees) </li></ul><ul><li>Under storey trees (dwarf fruit trees) </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubs layer (currents & berries) </li></ul><ul><li>Herbaceous layer (comfrey, beetroot, herbs) </li></ul><ul><li>Root layer (sweet potato, carrot, ginger) </li></ul><ul><li>Ground cover (strawberries) </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical layer (beans, pumpkin) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Permaculture book has an index of useful species at the back </li></ul>Principle 8: ACCELERATING SUCCESSION & EVOLUTION
    65. 65. <ul><li>Instead of fighting the process we can direct and accelerate it to build our own climax species in a shorter time </li></ul><ul><li>Use what is already growing </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce plants that will easily survive </li></ul><ul><li>Raise organic levels artificially </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute our own useful species at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds play a significant role correcting soil problems </li></ul><ul><li>Many weeds are dynamic accumulators </li></ul><ul><li>Legumes fix nitrogen in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Chop and drop </li></ul><ul><li>Sheet mulch weeds </li></ul>Principle 8: ACCELERATING SUCCESSION & EVOLUTION
    66. 66. <ul><li>This was until the Green Revolution </li></ul>Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS “ Human beings (like all other animals) draw their energy from the food they eat. Until the last century, all of the food energy available on this planet was derived from the sun through photosynthesis. Either you ate plants or you ate animals that fed on plants, but the energy in your food was ultimately derived from the sun”. Eating Fossil Fuels by Dale Allen Pfeiffer Energy (in Calories) 1 cal. 7 - 10 cal.
    67. 67. <ul><li>Agricultural energy consumption is broken down as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>31% for the manufacture of inorganic fertilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19% for the operation of field machinery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16% for transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% for irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>08% for raising livestock (not including livestock feed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>05% for crop drying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>05% for pesticide production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>08% miscellaneous 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NB. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy costs for packaging, refrigeration, transportation to retail </li></ul><ul><li>outlets, and household cooking are not considered in these figures. </li></ul>Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS
    68. 68. Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS Sustainable (Permaculture) vs. Industrial (Agriculture) Cyclic & renewable Linear, non-renewable Hand tools & small machinery Large machinery, heavy processing Minimum, Efficient use of space Maximum, Inefficient use of space Economical, low energy Costly, energy intensive Kind on the environment Ecologically invasive Analogous to: Aikido Karate
    69. 69. Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS
    70. 70. <ul><li>Efficient garden design strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Keyhole gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Terracing and Trellising </li></ul><ul><li>Use vertical space (beans, peas, pumpkin, grape, fruit) </li></ul><ul><li>Regular pickings close to paths </li></ul><ul><li>Bed width = reach, long reach = single pick </li></ul><ul><li>Raised beds </li></ul><ul><li>Broccoli boxes (50c from green grocer) </li></ul><ul><li>Herb Spirals </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch (the golden rule – no matter what soil type) </li></ul><ul><li>Compost </li></ul>Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS
    71. 71. <ul><li>Herb Spiral </li></ul><ul><li>Expand space upward rather than outward </li></ul><ul><li>Create different microclimates ranging from shady moist areas to warmer drier areas </li></ul>Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS Herbs that prefer moist conditions Herbs that prefer/handle drier conditions Plant near the bottom of the spiral – facing the softer morning sun Plant facing the summer sun and on top of the spiral Coriander Lemon balm Garlic chives Lavender Cress Tarragon Marjoram Oregano Ginger Mint (in pot) Rosemary Yarrow Parsley Rocket Society Garlic Thyme
    72. 72. <ul><li>Raised no dig garden </li></ul><ul><li>Select a small patch of grass, weeds or concrete near the house </li></ul><ul><li>Trample on grass or weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Put down a double layer of cardboard, overlapping it well (or 10 layers of newspaper) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate layers of high-nitrogen with high-carbon materials at 1:10 thick, watering as you go, until 80cm high </li></ul><ul><li>Place a layer of hay on top </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkle with dolomite/lime and water well </li></ul><ul><li>Make holes, pour in half a bucket of garden soil and plant seedlings </li></ul>Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS
    73. 73. <ul><li>Potato Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Dig out a circle patch of lawn </li></ul><ul><li>Place potatoes (sprout up) 30cm 1ft apart around the outer edges </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with soil (can be lawn that was dug out – placed upside down) </li></ul><ul><li>Fill the central hole with mushroom compost </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the whole circle with 30cm 1ft hay </li></ul><ul><li>Potato plants will end up covering the circle </li></ul><ul><li>Potato in Tyres </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out tire walls with sturdy knife, place one on ground </li></ul><ul><li>Place potatoes on top of a bed of Lucerne hay, cover in compost & mulch </li></ul><ul><li>When green leaf of plant pokes through, place another tire on top and cover so only tips are visible. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue until you have 4 tires stacked up. Harvest when green leaves die off completely. Yield is much greater for smaller surface area. </li></ul>Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS
    74. 74. <ul><li>Pond </li></ul><ul><li>Select a relatively flat piece of land, preferably that collects water run-off </li></ul><ul><li>Dig a hole the size you want the pond – leave ledges for submerged pot plants </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the hole and garden edges with 10 layers overlapping newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the newspaper with pool lining or butyl rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Put some rocks on the bottom to anchor the lining – placing the most beautiful rocks around edges and slightly hanging over the top of pond </li></ul><ul><li>Fill with water </li></ul><ul><li>Immerse large, soil filled pots with aquatic plants (lotus, taro, water lillies), in particular oxygenating plants </li></ul><ul><li>Place a log in the pond for frogs to get in and out of the water </li></ul>Principle 9: SMALL SCALE INTENSIVE SYSTEMS
    75. 75. <ul><li>Plants and Animals provide: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Fertiliser </li></ul><ul><li>Pest control </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat enhancement </li></ul><ul><li>Soil aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Fire control </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion control </li></ul><ul><li>Shade </li></ul>Principle 10: USING BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES
    76. 76. <ul><li>Solar & Solar Hot Water Systems </li></ul><ul><li>The different systems available </li></ul><ul><li>Standalone or grid interactive systems </li></ul><ul><li>The advantages & disadvantages of each option </li></ul><ul><li>Sizing your system </li></ul><ul><li>What else you need (e.g. batteries, inverters etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Costs and Government rebates available </li></ul><ul><li>Feed in Tariff </li></ul><ul><li>What are RECs (Renewable Energy Certificate) and how do they relate to MRET </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk buying groups </li></ul>ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOLUTIONS
    77. 77. <ul><li>Pests – repel them, trap them, mystify them, and attract predators that eat them </li></ul><ul><li>Weeds – outgrow them with natural ‘herbicides’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fertility – let it accumulate naturally with nitrogen-fixing and deep-rooted plants, and with garden debris and leaves that decay into rich soil. Healthy soil = healthy plants. </li></ul>ORGANIC GARDENING
    78. 78. <ul><li>Companion planting works because: </li></ul><ul><li>One plant attracts predators that eat the pests of its companion </li></ul><ul><li>One plant repels another’s pests </li></ul><ul><li>One plant produces substances that help another plant in various ways </li></ul><ul><li>The growing habits of one plant fit in with the growing habits of another </li></ul>ORGANIC GARDENING
    79. 79. <ul><li>Planting out vegetables: </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid straight rows </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-plant as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Mix flowers, natives and vegetables together </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t dig </li></ul><ul><li>Plant thickly </li></ul>ORGANIC GARDENING
    80. 80. <ul><li>Long-flowering native plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Astroloma conostephioides 1x1m, red: autumn, winter, spring </li></ul><ul><li>Banksia attenuata up to 10m, yellow: spring, summer, autumn </li></ul><ul><li>Banksia spinulosa 3x3m, cream to yellow: autumn, winter, spring </li></ul><ul><li>Banksia speciosa 3x4m, yellow: spring, summer, autumn </li></ul><ul><li>Callistemon citrinus 2x3m, red: spring, summer, autumn </li></ul><ul><li>Correa alba 2x2m, white: summer, autumn, winter </li></ul><ul><li>Correa pulchella 30cmx1m, orange-red: autumn, winter, spring </li></ul><ul><li>Epacris longiflora 1x1m, red and white: most of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Grevillea poorinda constance 3x3m, red: most of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Grevillea poorinda queen 3x3m, apricot-orange: most of the year </li></ul>ORGANIC GARDENING
    85. 85. <ul><li>Mung Beans </li></ul><ul><li>Alfalpha Sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Pea Sprouts </li></ul><ul><li>Garlic (garden or pots/broccoli box) </li></ul><ul><li>Potato (garden or potato tyre) </li></ul><ul><li>Lettuce (garden or pots/broccoli box) </li></ul>GROW NOW
    86. 86. <ul><li>Consider Permaculture Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Edge Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Relative location </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale intensive design strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Biological resources </li></ul>DESIGN AN URBAN PERMACULTURE SYSTEM
    87. 87. <ul><li>Consider Permaculture Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Edge Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Relative location </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficient planning (Zone/Sector/Slope) </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale intensive design strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Biological resources </li></ul><ul><li>Design Priorities: </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Zones </li></ul>DESIGN A RURAL PERMACULTURE SYSTEM
    88. 88. <ul><li>Every resource can be considered either an advantage or a disadvantage, depending on the use made of it </li></ul><ul><li>Think of everything as being a positive resource rather than a problem </li></ul>Principle 11: ATTITUDE
    89. 89. <ul><li>Consider reducing / re-using / recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Grow something to eat </li></ul><ul><li>Compost </li></ul><ul><li>Build a pond </li></ul><ul><li>Spread the word </li></ul><ul><li>Design a productive garden for friends and family </li></ul><ul><li>Join a local community garden or Permaculture group </li></ul>NEXT STEPS
    90. 90. <ul><li>Volunteer / WWOFF on a Permaculture farm </li></ul><ul><li>Read Permaculture books </li></ul><ul><li>Do a Permaculture Design Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate Accredited Permaculture Training </li></ul><ul><li>Join a Permaculture aid project </li></ul><ul><li>Become an intern at the Permaculture Research institute </li></ul><ul><li>Do a practical course at Bill Mollison’s farm </li></ul>NEXT STEPS
    91. 91. <ul><li>Introduction to Permaculture by Bill Mollison </li></ul><ul><li>Permaculture: A Designers Manual by Bill Mollison, Reny Mia Slay </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Industries Research & Development Corporation Report: Polyculture Production </li></ul><ul><li>The Permaculture Home Garden by Linda Woodrow </li></ul><ul><li>Jackie French’s Guide to Companion Planting </li></ul><ul><li>Jackie French: Soil Food </li></ul><ul><li>The Healthy Soil Handbook, an Earth Garden publication </li></ul>Reading List
    92. 92. <ul><li>How Can I Use Herbs in my daily life </li></ul><ul><li>Teaming with Microbes: A Gardener’s guide to the soil food </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Permaculture Design by Jenny Allen </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Farming: A practical guide </li></ul><ul><li>The Transition Handbook – from oil dependency to local resilience by Rob Hopkins </li></ul><ul><li>You Tube “Path to Freedom” - </li></ul><ul><li>Subscribe to for a range of publications relating to Permaculture/Organic Gardening </li></ul>Reading List