Water Quality Management In Rivers


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reviewer sa ene
ppt 97-2003

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Water Quality Management In Rivers

  1. 2. <ul><li>water quality management – to control the discharge of pollutants so the water quality is at an acceptable level </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>nature of pollutant </li></ul><ul><li>unique characteristics of the individual river </li></ul><ul><li>types of aquatic life </li></ul><ul><li>climate of the region </li></ul><ul><li>land use pattern </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>causes depletion of the dissolved oxygen in the water </li></ul><ul><li>may endanger aquatic life </li></ul>http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_pBilziP0ZE4/SSA9oQWknrI/AAAAAAAAA0E/7JkLal5Av1M/s400/aquatic+life+threatened.jpg
  4. 5. <ul><li>ThOD (theoretical oxygen demand) – depends on chemical composition to know the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize a substance to carbon dioxide and water </li></ul><ul><li>COD (chemical oxygen demand) – contrast to ThOD </li></ul><ul><li>COD Test – a test which uses a strong oxidizing agent mixed in the water sample and boiled </li></ul><ul><li>*the difference between the amount of oxidizing agent used at the beginning and that remaining at the end of the test is used to calculate the COD* </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>BOD – the chemical procedure to determine the intake rate of dissolved oxygen by the microorganisms </li></ul><ul><li>BOD Test – most widely used method of measuring organic matter as well as measuring the change in dissolved oxygen concentration </li></ul><ul><li>aerobic decomposition – the process in which the microorganisms uses oxygen as it consumes waste </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate BOD – maximum oxygen consumption possible when waste has been completely degraded </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Nitrogenous – oxygen consumption due to oxidation of nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonaceous - oxygen consumption due to oxidation of carbon </li></ul>Nitrification – the process of oxidizing nitrogen * Nitrogen is released as ammonia in the water and is formed to ammonium cation. This cation plus the ammonia released by industrial waste is oxidized to nitrate. The nitrate is then consumed by a special group of nitrifying bacteria.* Process of Oxidation:
  7. 8. <ul><li>DO (dissolved oxygen) – determines the health of the river </li></ul><ul><li>DO Sag Curve – assess the ability of a river to absorb waste discharge </li></ul>*Rivers are able to self-purify itself and as long as the DO Curve is going up, the river can still manage the waste discharged, but if it goes below the critical point , this may cause changes in the living plants or animals in the river.*
  8. 9. <ul><li>Nutrients – causes excessive plant growth </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients are the ff: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon – can be dissolved in water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen – toxic to fish </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> - element for excessive growth of algae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus – vital element for the growth of algae </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trace elements – treated in water facilities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>* When algae dies, it becomes an oxygen- demanding material (pollutant).* </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Lake Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>Algal Growth Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>The Limiting Nutrient and Control of it </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Lake Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>determined by measuring the amount of algae growth </li></ul><ul><li>increase in productivity decrease in water quality </li></ul><ul><li>forms a basis for classifying lakes </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Classification of Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Oligotrophic – low level productivity due to severely limited supply of nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>- water is clear enough to see the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Eutrophic – high level of productivity because of an abundant supply of nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- have mats of flowing algae and impart unpleasant tastes and odors to the water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mesotrophic – intermediate between oligotrophic and eutrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Senescent – very old, shallow lakes with thick organic sediments </li></ul><ul><li> - will eventually become marshes </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Natural Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- natural process in which lakes gradually becomes shallower and more productive through the introduction and cycling of nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Eutrophication </li></ul><ul><li>- same process but with the intervention of human activity that speeds up the process </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Algal Growth Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon – can be dissolved in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denitrification: after the nitrification process; process in which the nitrogen gas is being consumed by the cyanobacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) – fixes the nitrogen gas by converting it into organic nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace elements </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>Phosphorus: comes from external sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- limiting nutrient because it is the least available nutrient in the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- amount of phosphorus controls the quantity of algal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- taken by algae and returns it to its original form then when the algae dies it is released rapidly in the water but is transferred to the sediments, precipitates of iron, aluminum, calcium </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Sources of Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal & Industrial Wastewaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> -contains phosphorus from human excrement and detergent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - controlled through advance wastewater treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Runoff </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- phosphorus is from fertilizers used in farming slides through soil erosion and rain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Septic Tank Seepage </li></ul><ul><li>- for waste disposal </li></ul><ul><li>- phosphorus is absorbed by the soil </li></ul><ul><li>- controlled by replacing sewage tanks with sewers that collects and transports the wastewater to a treatment facility </li></ul>