Final exam

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Final exam

  1. 1. Switch Case http://eglobiotraining.com/
  2. 2. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  3. 3. • In programming, a switch, case, select or inspect statement is a type of selection control mechanism that exists in most imperative programming languages such as Pascal, Ada, C/C++, C# programming language , Java, and so on. It is also included in several other types of programming languages. Its purpose is to allow the value of a variable or expression to control the flow of program execution via a multiway branch (or "goto", one of several labels). The main reasons for using a switch include improving clarity, by reducing otherwise repetitive coding, and (if the heuristics permit) also offering the potential for faster execution through easier compiler optimization in many cases. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  4. 4. • switch (n) • {• C# • case 0:• • Console.WriteLine("You typed zero."); • break;• In C# programming, every case block • case 1: that contains any statements must • case 4: • case 9: have a reachable end point, or • Console.WriteLine("n is a perfect square."); triggers a compilation error.In • break; • case 2: programming usually, this is a break • Console.WriteLine("n is an even number."); statement, but any jump statement • goto case 3; can be used – such as return, goto or • case 3: • case 5: throw – or the switch can simply end • case 7: with an infinite loop. Case fall- • Console.WriteLine("n is a prime number."); through is only permitted when there • break; • case 6: are no statements between one case • case 8: statement and the next. If fall- • Console.WriteLine("n is an even number."); • break; through is otherwise desired, it must • default: be made explicit with the goto case • Console.WriteLine("Only single-digit numbers are allowed."); construct. C# programming also • break; allows the use of non-integer case • } values, such as Strings. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  5. 5. • Select Case n • Case Is < -5 • MsgBox("n is less than -5")• Visual Basic .NET • Case -4 To -1 •• • MsgBox("n is between -4 and -1") Case 0• In programming, Visual Basic • MsgBox("n is 0") • Case 2, 4, 6, 8 .NET, the switch statement is • MsgBox("n is even") called "Select Case • Case 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 programming", and fall-through • MsgBox("n is odd") • Case Else to later blocks is not supported. • MsgBox("only single-digit numbers are allowed.", However, ranges and various vbCritical) • End Select constructs from If statements are • both supported • Visual FoxPro • • Visual FoxPro: • • Do Case • Case field_1 = "X" • Replace field_b With 1 • Case field_1 = "Y" • Replace field_b With 2 • Case field_1 = "Z" • Replace field_b With 3 • Endcase http://eglobiotraining.com/
  6. 6. • Haskell • (f:r) -> "Not empty, first item is " ++ show f • [] -> "List is empty!"• Haskells case construct, unlike C- • • OCaml, F# influenced programming • languages, has no fall-through • OCaml and F#s match construct is like behaviour. It is a programming Haskells case above. expression which returns a value, • and it can deconstruct values • (* OCaml *) using pattern matching. • match list with • f::r -> "Not empty, first item is " ^ string_of_int f • | [] -> "List is empty!" • • // F# • match list with • | f::r -> "Not empty, first item is " + string f • | [] -> "List is empty!" http://eglobiotraining.com/
  7. 7. • Pascal • case age of • 0,1: writeln(baby);• In Programming, Pascal • 2,3,4: writeln(toddler); does not allow “fall • 5..12: writeln(kid); through”, but has ranges • 13..19: writeln(teenager); and comma separated • 20..25: writeln(young); literal lists. • else writeln(old); • end; http://eglobiotraining.com/
  8. 8. • Perl • use feature switch;• • given ($foo) { • when (undef) {• Perl 5.10 has a powerful built in switch • say $foo is undefined; statement called given, where the • } programming cases are called when: • when ("foo") { • say $foo is the string "foo"; • } • when ([1,3,5,7,9]) { • say $foo is an odd digit; • continue; # Fall through • } • when ($_ < 100) { • say $foo is numerically less than 100; • } • when (&complicated_check) { • say a complicated check for $foo is true; • } • default { • die "I dont know what to do with $foo"; • } • } http://eglobiotraining.com/
  9. 9. Loopinghttp://eglobiotraining.com/
  10. 10. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  11. 11. • In programming, very often when you write code, you want the same block of code to run a number of times. You can use looping statements in your code to do this.•• In programming, the JavaScript programming have the following looping statements:•• While programming- loops through a block of code while a condition is true• Do...while programming- loops through a block of code once, and then repeats the loop while a condition is true• For programming- run statements a specified number of times http://eglobiotraining.com/
  12. 12. • while • while (condition)• • {• In programming while • code to be executed statement will execute a • } block of code while a • condition is true.. • http://eglobiotraining.com/
  13. 13. • Do...while • do• • {• In Programming the do...while • code to be executed statement will execute a block • } of code once, and then it will • while (condition) repeat the loop while a condition is true•• The Java programming language also provides a do- while statement, which can be expressed as follows:• http://eglobiotraining.com/
  14. 14. • for • for (initialization;• condition; increment)• In programming the • { “for” statement will • code to be executed execute a block of code • } a specified number of times http://eglobiotraining.com/
  15. 15. • if (expression) • statement; • • or • • if (expression) • { • Block of statements; • }• If statement • • or • • if (expression) • { • Block of statements; • }• In Programming, It takes an • else • { • Block of statements; expression in parenthesis • • } and an statement or block of • • or statements. if the expression • • if (expression) { is true then the • • } Block of statements; programming statement or • • else if(expression) { block of statements gets • • } Block of statements; executed otherwise these • • else { statements are skipped. • • } Block of statements; • • ? : Operator http://eglobiotraining.com/
  16. 16. • While Loop • #include •• In programming, For repeating C • int main(void) programming statements whiles • { a condition is true,the while • provides a the necessary • int loop = 0; mechanism. • • while (loop <=10) • { • printf(“%d”, loop); • ++loop • } • • return 0; • • } http://eglobiotraining.com/
  17. 17. • Input : In any programming language input means to feed some data into program. Programming can be given in the form of file or from command line. C programming language provides a set of built-in functions to read given input and feed it to the program as per requirement.•• Output : In any programming language output means to display some data on screen, printer or in any file. C programming language provides a set of built-in functions to output required data. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  18. 18. http://eglobiotraining.com/
  19. 19. Professor: Erwin M. GlobioHTTP://EGLOBIOTRAINING.COM/

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